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versionmore about version

version


  4  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Version  \Ver"sion\,  n.  [F.,  from  L.  vertere  versum  to  turn,  to 
  change,  to  translate.  See  {Verse}.] 
  1.  A  change  of  form  direction,  or  the  like  transformation; 
  conversion;  turning. 
 
  The  version  of  air  into  water.  --Bacon. 
 
  2.  (Med.)  A  condition  of  the  uterus  in  which  its  axis  is 
  deflected  from  its  normal  position  without  being  bent  upon 
  itself  See  {Anteversion},  and  {Retroversion}. 
 
  3.  The  act  of  translating,  or  rendering,  from  one  language 
  into  another  language. 
 
  4.  A  translation;  that  which  is  rendered  from  another 
  language;  as  the  Common,  or  Authorized,  Version  of  the 
  Scriptures  (see  under  {Authorized});  the  Septuagint 
  Version  of  the  Old  Testament. 
 
  5.  An  account  or  description  from  a  particular  point  of  view, 
  especially  as  contrasted  with  another  account;  as  he  gave 
  another  version  of  the  affair. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  version 
  n  1:  an  interpretation  of  a  matter  from  a  particular  viewpoint; 
  "his  version  of  the  fight  was  different  from  mine" 
  2:  something  a  little  different  from  others  of  the  same  type 
  "an  experimental  version  of  the  night  fighter";  "an  emery 
  wheel  is  a  modern  variant  of  the  grindstone"  [syn:  {variant}, 
  {variation}] 
  3:  a  written  work  (as  a  novel)  that  has  been  recast  in  a  new 
  form:  "the  play  is  an  adaptation  of  a  short  novel"  [syn:  {adaptation}] 
  4:  a  written  communication  in  a  second  language  having  the  same 
  meaning  as  the  written  communication  in  a  first  language 
  [syn:  {translation},  {interlingual  rendition},  {rendering}] 
  5:  a  mental  representation  of  the  meaning  or  significance  of 
  something  [syn:  {interpretation},  {reading}] 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  version 
 
    One  of  a  sequence  of  copies  of  a  program,  each 
  incorporating  new  modifications.  Each  version  is  usually 
  identified  by  a  number,  commonly  of  the  form  X.Y  where  X  is 
  the  major  version  number  and  Y  is  the  release  number. 
  Typically  an  increment  in  X  (with  Y  reset  to  zero)  signifies  a 
  substantial  increase  in  the  function  of  the  program  or  a 
  partial  or  total  re-implementation,  whereas  Y  increases  each 
  time  the  progam  is  changed  in  any  way  and  re-released. 
 
  Version  numbers  are  useful  so  that  the  user  can  know  if  the 
  program  has  changed  ({bug}s  have  been  fixed  or  new  functions 
  added)  since  he  obtained  his  copy  and  the  programmer  can  tell 
  if  a  bug  report  relates  to  the  current  version.  It  is  thus 
  always  important  to  state  the  version  when  reporting  bugs. 
  Statements  about  compatibility  between  different  software 
  components  should  always  say  which  versions  they  apply  to 
 
  See  {change  management}. 
 
  (1997-12-07) 
 
 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Version 
  a  translation  of  the  holy  Scriptures.  This  word  is  not  found  in 
  the  Bible,  nevertheless,  as  frequent  references  are  made  in  this 
  work  to  various  ancient  as  well  as  modern  versions,  it  is 
  fitting  that  some  brief  account  should  be  given  of  the  most 
  important  of  these  These  versions  are  important  helps  to  the 
  right  interpretation  of  the  Word  (See  SAMARITAN  {PENTATEUCH}.) 
 
  1.  The  Targums.  After  the  return  from  the  Captivity,  the  Jews, 
  no  longer  familiar  with  the  old  Hebrew,  required  that  their 
  Scriptures  should  be  translated  for  them  into  the  Chaldaic  or 
  Aramaic  language  and  interpreted.  These  translations  and 
  paraphrases  were  at  first  oral,  but  they  were  afterwards  reduced 
  to  writing,  and  thus  targums,  i.e.,  versions"  or 
  "translations",  have  come  down  to  us  The  chief  of  these  are 
  (1.)  The  Onkelos  Targum,  i.e.,  the  targum  of  Akelas=Aquila,  a 
  targum  so  called  to  give  it  greater  popularity  by  comparing  it 
  with  the  Greek  translation  of  Aquila  mentioned  below.  This 
  targum  originated  about  the  second  century  after  Christ.  (2.) 
  The  targum  of  Jonathan  ben  Uzziel  comes  next  to  that  of  Onkelos 
  in  respect  of  age  and  value.  It  is  more  a  paraphrase  on  the 
  Prophets,  however,  than  a  translation.  Both  of  these  targums 
  issued  from  the  Jewish  school  which  then  flourished  at  Babylon. 
 
  2.  The  Greek  Versions.  (1.)  The  oldest  of  these  is  the 
  Septuagint,  usually  quoted  as  the  LXX.  The  origin  of  this  the 
  most  important  of  all  the  versions  is  involved  in  much 
  obscurity.  It  derives  its  name  from  the  popular  notion  that 
  seventy-two  translators  were  employed  on  it  by  the  direction  of 
  Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  king  of  Egypt,  and  that  it  was 
  accomplished  in  seventy-two  days,  for  the  use  of  the  Jews 
  residing  in  that  country.  There  is  no  historical  warrant  for 
  this  notion.  It  is  however,  an  established  fact  that  this 
  version  was  made  at  Alexandria;  that  it  was  begun  about  280 
  B.C.,  and  finished  about  200  or  150  B.C.;  that  it  was  the  work 
  of  a  number  of  translators  who  differed  greatly  both  in  their 
  knowledge  of  Hebrew  and  of  Greek;  and  that  from  the  earliest 
  times  it  has  borne  the  name  of  "The  Septuagint",  i.e.,  The 
  Seventy. 
 
  "This  version,  with  all  its  defects,  must  be  of  the  greatest 
  interest,  a  as  preserving  evidence  for  the  text  far  more 
  ancient  than  the  oldest  Hebrew  manuscripts;  b  as  the  means  by 
  which  the  Greek  Language  was  wedded  to  Hebrew  thought;  c  as 
  the  source  of  the  great  majority  of  quotations  from  the  Old 
  Testament  by  writers  of  the  New  Testament. 
 
  (2.)  The  New  Testament  manuscripts  fall  into  two  divisions, 
  Uncials,  written  in  Greek  capitals,  with  no  distinction  at  all 
  between  the  different  words  and  very  little  even  between  the 
  different  lines;  and  Cursives,  in  small  Greek  letters,  and  with 
  divisions  of  words  and  lines.  The  change  between  the  two  kinds 
  of  Greek  writing  took  place  about  the  tenth  century.  Only  five 
  manuscripts  of  the  New  Testament  approaching  to  completeness  are 
  more  ancient  than  this  dividing  date.  The  first  numbered  A,  is 
  the  Alexandrian  manuscript.  Though  brought  to  this  country  by 
  Cyril  Lucar,  patriarch  of  Constantinople,  as  a  present  to 
  Charles  I.,  it  is  believed  that  it  was  written,  not  in  that 
  capital,  but  in  Alexandria;  whence  its  title.  It  is  now  dated  in 
  the  fifth  century  A.D.  The  second  known  as  B,  is  the  Vatican 
  manuscript.  (See  {VATICANUS}.)  The  Third  C,  or  the 
  Ephraem  manuscript,  was  so  called  because  it  was  written  over 
  the  writings  of  Ephraem,  a  Syrian  theological  author,  a  practice 
  very  common  in  the  days  when  writing  materials  were  scarce  and 
  dear.  It  is  believed  that  it  belongs  to  the  fifth  century,  and 
  perhaps  a  slightly  earlier  period  of  it  than  the  manuscript  A. 
  The  fourth  D,  or  the  manuscript  of  Beza,  was  so  called  because 
  it  belonged  to  the  reformer  Beza,  who  found  it  in  the  monastery 
  of  St  Irenaeus  at  Lyons  in  1562  A.D.  It  is  imperfect,  and  is 
  dated  in  the  sixth  century.  The  fifth  (called  Aleph)  is  the 
  Sinaitic  manuscript.  (See  {SINAITICUS}.) 
 
  3.  The  Syriac  Versions.  (See  {SYRIAC}.) 
 
  4.  The  Latin  Versions.  A  Latin  version  of  the  Scriptures, 
  called  the  "Old  Latin,"  which  originated  in  North  Africa,  was  in 
  common  use  in  the  time  of  Tertullian  (A.D.  150).  Of  this  there 
  appear  to  have  been  various  copies  or  recensions  made  That  made 
  in  Italy,  and  called  the  Itala,  was  reckoned  the  most  accurate. 
  This  translation  of  the  Old  Testament  seems  to  have  been  made 
  not  from  the  original  Hebrew  but  from  the  LXX. 
 
  This  version  became  greatly  corrupted  by  repeated 
  transcription,  and  to  remedy  the  evil  Jerome  (A.D.  329-420)  was 
  requested  by  Damasus,  the  bishop  of  Rome,  to  undertake  a 
  complete  revision  of  it  It  met  with  opposition  at  first  but 
  was  at  length,  in  the  seventh  century,  recognized  as  the 
  Vulgate"  version.  It  appeared  in  a  printed  from  about  A.D. 
  1455,  the  first  book  that  ever  issued  from  the  press.  The 
  Council  of  Trent  (1546)  declared  it  "authentic."  It  subsequently 
  underwent  various  revisions,  but  that  which  was  executed  (1592) 
  under  the  sanction  of  Pope  Clement  VIII.  was  adopted  as  the 
  basis  of  all  subsequent  editions.  It  is  regarded  as  the  sacred 
  original  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  All  modern  European 
  versions  have  been  more  or  less  influenced  by  the  Vulgate.  This 
  version  reads  _ipsa_  instead  of  _ipse_  in  Gen.  3:15,  "She  shall 
  bruise  thy  head." 
 
  5.  There  are  several  other  ancient  versions  which  are  of 
  importance  for  Biblical  critics,  but  which  we  need  not  mention 
  particularly,  such  as  the  Ethiopic,  in  the  fourth  century,  from 
  the  LXX.;  two  Egyptian  versions,  about  the  fourth  century,  the 
  Memphitic,  circulated  in  Lower  Egypt,  and  the  Thebaic,  designed 
  for  Upper  Egypt,  both  from  the  Greek;  the  Gothic,  written  in  the 
  German  language,  but  with  the  Greek  alphabet,  by  Ulphilas  (died 
  A.D.  388),  of  which  only  fragments  of  the  Old  Testament  remain; 
  the  Armenian,  about  A.D.  400;  and  the  Slavonic,  in  the  ninth 
  century,  for  ancient  Moravia.  Other  ancient  versions,  as  the 
  Arabic,  the  Persian,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon,  may  be  mentioned. 
 
  6.  The  history  of  the  English  versions  begins  properly  with 
  Wyckliffe.  Portions,  however,  of  the  Scriptures  were  rendered 
  into  Saxon  (as  the  Gospel  according  to  John,  by  Bede,  A.D.  735), 
  and  also  into  English  (by  Orme,  called  the  "Ormulum,"  a  portion 
  of  the  Gospels  and  of  the  Acts  in  the  form  of  a  metrical 
  paraphrase,  toward  the  close  of  the  seventh  century),  long 
  before  Wyckliffe;  but  it  is  to  him  that  the  honour  belongs  of 
  having  first  rendered  the  whole  Bible  into  English  (A.D.  1380). 
  This  version  was  made  from  the  Vulgate,  and  renders  Gen.  3:15 
  after  that  Version,  "She  shall  trede  thy  head." 
 
  This  was  followed  by  Tyndale's  translation  (1525-1531);  Miles 
  Coverdale's  (1535-1553);  Thomas  Matthew's  (1537),  really, 
  however,  the  work  of  John  Rogers,  the  first  martyr  under  the 
  reign  of  Queen  Mary.  This  was  properly  the  first  Authorized 
  Version,  Henry  VIII.  having  ordered  a  copy  of  it  to  be  got  for 
  every  church.  This  took  place  in  less  than  a  year  after  Tyndale 
  was  martyred  for  the  crime  of  translating  the  Scriptures.  In 
  1539  Richard  Taverner  published  a  revised  edition  of  Matthew's 
  Bible.  The  Great  Bible,  so  called  from  its  great  size,  called 
  also  Cranmer's  Bible,  was  published  in  1539  and  1568.  In  the 
  strict  sense  the  "Great  Bible"  is  "the  only  authorized  version; 
  for  the  Bishops'  Bible  and  the  present  Bible  [the  A.V.]  never 
  had  the  formal  sanction  of  royal  authority."  Next  in  order  was 
  the  Geneva  version  (1557-1560);  the  Bishops'  Bible  (1568);  the 
  Rheims  and  Douai  versions,  under  Roman  Catholic  auspices  (1582, 
  1609);  the  Authorized  Version  (1611);  and  the  Revised  Version  of 
  the  New  Testament  in  1880  and  of  the  Old  Testament  in  1884. 
 




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