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egypt

more about egypt

egypt


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Egypt 
  n  1:  a  republic  in  northeastern  Africa;  site  of  an  ancient 
  civilization  that  flourished  from  2600  to  30  BC  [syn:  {Egypt}, 
  {Arab  Republic  of  Egypt},  {United  Arab  Republic}] 
  2:  an  ancient  empire  west  of  Israel;  centered  on  the  Nile  River 
  and  ruled  by  a  Pharaoh;  figured  in  many  events  described 
  in  the  Old  Testament  [syn:  {Egyptian  Empire},  {Egypt}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Egypt,  AR  (town,  FIPS  20920) 
  Location:  35.86665  N,  90.95288  W 
  Population  (1990):  123  (57  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.0  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Egypt,  MS 
  Zip  code(s):  38860 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Egypt 
  the  land  of  the  Nile  and  the  pyramids,  the  oldest  kingdom  of 
  which  we  have  any  record,  holds  a  place  of  great  significance  in 
  Scripture. 
 
  The  Egyptians  belonged  to  the  white  race,  and  their  original 
  home  is  still  a  matter  of  dispute.  Many  scholars  believe  that  it 
  was  in  Southern  Arabia,  and  recent  excavations  have  shown  that 
  the  valley  of  the  Nile  was  originally  inhabited  by  a  low-class 
  population,  perhaps  belonging  to  the  Nigritian  stock,  before  the 
  Egyptians  of  history  entered  it  The  ancient  Egyptian  language, 
  of  which  the  latest  form  is  Coptic,  is  distantly  connected  with 
  the  Semitic  family  of  speech. 
 
  Egypt  consists  geographically  of  two  halves,  the  northern 
  being  the  Delta,  and  the  southern  Upper  Egypt,  between  Cairo  and 
  the  First  Cataract.  In  the  Old  Testament,  Northern  or  Lower 
  Egypt  is  called  Mazor,  "the  fortified  land"  (Isa.  19:6;  37:  25, 
  where  the  A.V.  mistranslates  defence"  and  "besieged  places"); 
  while  Southern  or  Upper  Egypt  is  Pathros,  the  Egyptian 
  Pa-to-Res,  or  "the  land  of  the  south"  (Isa.  11:11).  But  the 
  whole  country  is  generally  mentioned  under  the  dual  name  of 
  Mizraim,  "the  two  Mazors." 
 
  The  civilization  of  Egypt  goes  back  to  a  very  remote 
  antiquity.  The  two  kingdoms  of  the  north  and  south  were  united 
  by  Menes,  the  founder  of  the  first  historical  dynasty  of  kings. 
  The  first  six  dynasties  constitute  what  is  known  as  the  Old 
  Empire,  which  had  its  capital  at  Memphis,  south  of  Cairo,  called 
  in  the  Old  Testament  Moph  (Hos.  9:6)  and  Noph.  The  native  name 
  was  Mennofer  "the  good  place." 
 
  The  Pyramids  were  tombs  of  the  monarchs  of  the  Old  Empire, 
  those  of  Gizeh  being  erected  in  the  time  of  the  Fourth  Dynasty. 
  After  the  fall  of  the  Old  Empire  came  a  period  of  decline  and 
  obscurity.  This  was  followed  by  the  Middle  Empire,  the  most 
  powerful  dynasty  of  which  was  the  Twelfth.  The  Fayyum  was 
  rescued  for  agriculture  by  the  kings  of  the  Twelfth  Dynasty;  and 
  two  obelisks  were  erected  in  front  of  the  temple  of  the  sun-god 
  at  On  or  Heliopolis  (near  Cairo),  one  of  which  is  still 
  standing.  The  capital  of  the  Middle  Empire  was  Thebes,  in  Upper 
  Egypt. 
 
  The  Middle  Empire  was  overthrown  by  the  invasion  of  the 
  Hyksos,  or  shepherd  princes  from  Asia,  who  ruled  over  Egypt, 
  more  especially  in  the  north,  for  several  centuries,  and  of  whom 
  there  were  three  dynasties  of  kings.  They  had  their  capital  at 
  Zoan  or  Tanis  (now  San),  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  the  Delta. 
  It  was  in  the  time  of  the  Hyksos  that  Abraham,  Jacob,  and  Joseph 
  entered  Egypt.  The  Hyksos  were  finally  expelled  about  B.C.  1600, 
  by  the  hereditary  princes  of  Thebes,  who  founded  the  Eighteenth 
  Dynasty,  and  carried  the  war  into  Asia.  Canaan  and  Syria  were 
  subdued,  as  well  as  Cyprus,  and  the  boundaries  of  the  Egyptian 
  Empire  were  fixed  at  the  Euphrates.  The  Soudan,  which  had  been 
  conquered  by  the  kings  of  the  Twelfth  Dynasty,  was  again  annexed 
  to  Egypt,  and  the  eldest  son  of  the  Pharaoh  took  the  title  of 
  "Prince  of  Cush." 
 
  One  of  the  later  kings  of  the  dynasty,  Amenophis  IV.,  or 
  Khu-n-Aten,  endeavoured  to  supplant  the  ancient  state  religion 
  of  Egypt  by  a  new  faith  derived  from  Asia,  which  was  a  sort  of 
  pantheistic  monotheism,  the  one  supreme  god  being  adored  under 
  the  image  of  the  solar  disk.  The  attempt  led  to  religious  and 
  civil  war,  and  the  Pharaoh  retreated  from  Thebes  to  Central 
  Egypt,  where  he  built  a  new  capital,  on  the  site  of  the  present 
  Tell-el-Amarna.  The  cuneiform  tablets  that  have  been  found  there 
  represent  his  foreign  correspondence  (about  B.C.  1400).  He 
  surrounded  himself  with  officials  and  courtiers  of  Asiatic,  and 
  more  especially  Canaanitish,  extraction;  but  the  native  party 
  succeeded  eventually  in  overthrowing  the  government,  the  capital 
  of  Khu-n-Aten  was  destroyed,  and  the  foreigners  were  driven  out 
  of  the  country,  those  that  remained  being  reduced  to  serfdom. 
 
  The  national  triumph  was  marked  by  the  rise  of  the  Nineteenth 
  Dynasty,  in  the  founder  of  which  Rameses  I.,  we  must  see  the 
  "new  king,  who  knew  not  Joseph."  His  grandson,  Rameses  II., 
  reigned  sixty-seven  years  (B.C.  1348-1281),  and  was  an 
  indefatigable  builder.  As  Pithom,  excavated  by  Dr  Naville  in 
  1883,  was  one  of  the  cities  he  built,  he  must  have  been  the 
  Pharaoh  of  the  Oppression.  The  Pharaoh  of  the  Exodus  may  have 
  been  one  of  his  immediate  successors,  whose  reigns  were  short. 
  Under  them  Egypt  lost  its  empire  in  Asia,  and  was  itself 
  attacked  by  barbarians  from  Libya  and  the  north. 
 
  The  Nineteenth  Dynasty  soon  afterwards  came  to  an  end  Egypt 
  was  distracted  by  civil  war;  and  for  a  short  time  a  Canaanite, 
  Arisu,  ruled  over  it 
 
  Then  came  the  Twentieth  Dynasty,  the  second  Pharaoh  of  which 
  Rameses  III.,  restored  the  power  of  his  country.  In  one  of  his 
  campaigns  he  overran  the  southern  part  of  Palestine,  where  the 
  Israelites  had  not  yet  settled.  They  must  at  the  time  have  been 
  still  in  the  wilderness.  But  it  was  during  the  reign  of  Rameses 
  III.  that  Egypt  finally  lost  Gaza  and  the  adjoining  cities, 
  which  were  seized  by  the  Pulista  or  Philistines. 
 
  After  Rameses  III.,  Egypt  fell  into  decay.  Solomon  married  the 
  daughter  of  one  of  the  last  kings  of  the  Twenty-first  Dynasty, 
  which  was  overthrown  by  Shishak  I.,  the  general  of  the  Libyan 
  mercenaries,  who  founded  the  Twenty-second  Dynasty  (1  Kings 
  11:40;  14:25,  26).  A  list  of  the  places  he  captured  in  Palestine 
  is  engraved  on  the  outside  of  the  south  wall  of  the  temple  of 
  Karnak. 
 
  In  the  time  of  Hezekiah,  Egypt  was  conquered  by  Ethiopians 
  from  the  Soudan,  who  constituted  the  Twenty-fifth  Dynasty.  The 
  third  of  them  was  Tirhakah  (2  Kings  19:9).  In  B.C.  674  it  was 
  conquered  by  the  Assyrians,  who  divided  it  into  twenty 
  satrapies,  and  Tirhakah  was  driven  back  to  his  ancestral 
  dominions.  Fourteen  years  later  it  successfully  revolted  under 
  Psammetichus  I.  of  Sais,  the  founder  of  the  Twenty-sixth 
  Dynasty.  Among  his  successors  were  Necho  (2  Kings  23:29)  and 
  Hophra,  or  Apries  (Jer.  37:5,  7,  11).  The  dynasty  came  to  an  end 
  in  B.C.  525,  when  the  country  was  subjugated  by  Cambyses  Soon 
  afterwards  it  was  organized  into  a  Persian  satrapy. 
 
  The  title  of  Pharaoh,  given  to  the  Egyptian  kings,  is  the 
  Egyptian  Per-aa,  or  "Great  House,"  which  may  be  compared  to  that 
  of  "Sublime  Porte."  It  is  found  in  very  early  Egyptian  texts. 
 
  The  Egyptian  religion  was  a  strange  mixture  of  pantheism  and 
  animal  worship,  the  gods  being  adored  in  the  form  of  animals. 
  While  the  educated  classes  resolved  their  manifold  deities  into 
  manifestations  of  one  omnipresent  and  omnipotent  divine  power, 
  the  lower  classes  regarded  the  animals  as  incarnations  of  the 
  gods. 
 
  Under  the  Old  Empire,  Ptah,  the  Creator,  the  god  of  Memphis, 
  was  at  the  head  of  the  Pantheon;  afterwards  Amon,  the  god  of 
  Thebes,  took  his  place  Amon,  like  most  of  the  other  gods,  was 
  identified  with  Ra  the  sun-god  of  Heliopolis 
 
  The  Egyptians  believed  in  a  resurrection  and  future  life,  as 
  well  as  in  a  state  of  rewards  and  punishments  dependent  on  our 
  conduct  in  this  world.  The  judge  of  the  dead  was  Osiris,  who  had 
  been  slain  by  Set  the  representative  of  evil,  and  afterwards 
  restored  to  life.  His  death  was  avenged  by  his  son  Horus,  whom 
  the  Egyptians  invoked  as  their  "Redeemer."  Osiris  and  Horus, 
  along  with  Isis,  formed  a  trinity,  who  were  regarded  as 
  representing  the  sun-god  under  different  forms. 
 
  Even  in  the  time  of  Abraham,  Egypt  was  a  flourishing  and 
  settled  monarchy.  Its  oldest  capital,  within  the  historic 
  period,  was  Memphis,  the  ruins  of  which  may  still  be  seen  near 
  the  Pyramids  and  the  Sphinx.  When  the  Old  Empire  of  Menes  came 
  to  an  end  the  seat  of  empire  was  shifted  to  Thebes,  some  300 
  miles  farther  up  the  Nile.  A  short  time  after  that  the  Delta 
  was  conquered  by  the  Hyksos,  or  shepherd  kings,  who  fixed  their 
  capital  at  Zoan,  the  Greek  Tanis,  now  San,  on  the  Tanic  arm  of 
  the  Nile.  All  this  occurred  before  the  time  of  the  new  king 
  "which  knew  not  Joseph"  (Ex.  1:8).  In  later  times  Egypt  was 
  conquered  by  the  Persians  (B.C.  525),  and  by  the  Greeks  under 
  Alexander  the  Great  (B.C.  332),  after  whom  the  Ptolemies  ruled 
  the  country  for  three  centuries.  Subsequently  it  was  for  a  time 
  a  province  of  the  Roman  Empire;  and  at  last  in  A.D.  1517,  it 
  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Turks,  of  whose  empire  it  still  forms 
  nominally  a  part  Abraham  and  Sarah  went  to  Egypt  in  the  time  of 
  the  shepherd  kings.  The  exile  of  Joseph  and  the  migration  of 
  Jacob  to  "the  land  of  Goshen"  occurred  about  200  years  later  On 
  the  death  of  Solomon,  Shishak,  king  of  Egypt,  invaded  Palestine 
  (1  Kings  14:25).  He  left  a  list  of  the  cities  he  conquered. 
 
  A  number  of  remarkable  clay  tablets,  discovered  at 
  Tell-el-Amarna  in  Upper  Egypt,  are  the  most  important  historical 
  records  ever  found  in  connection  with  the  Bible.  They  most  fully 
  confirm  the  historical  statements  of  the  Book  of  Joshua,  and 
  prove  the  antiquity  of  civilization  in  Syria  and  Palestine.  As 
  the  clay  in  different  parts  of  Palestine  differs,  it  has  been 
  found  possible  by  the  clay  alone  to  decide  where  the  tablets 
  come  from  when  the  name  of  the  writer  is  lost.  The  inscriptions 
  are  cuneiform,  and  in  the  Aramaic  language,  resembling  Assyrian. 
  The  writers  are  Phoenicians,  Amorites,  and  Philistines,  but  in 
  no  instance  Hittites,  though  Hittites  are  mentioned.  The  tablets 
  consist  of  official  dispatches  and  letters,  dating  from  B.C. 
  1480,  addressed  to  the  two  Pharaohs,  Amenophis  III.  and  IV.,  the 
  last  of  this  dynasty,  from  the  kings  and  governors  of  Phoenicia 
  and  Palestine.  There  occur  the  names  of  three  kings  killed  by 
  Joshua,  Adoni-zedec,  king  of  Jerusalem,  Japhia,  king  of  Lachish 
  (Josh.  10:3),  and  Jabin,  king  of  Hazor  (11:1);  also  the  Hebrews 
  Abiri  are  said  to  have  come  from  the  desert. 
 
  The  principal  prophecies  of  Scripture  regarding  Egypt  are 
  these  Isa.  19;  Jer.  43:  8-13;  44:30;  46;  Ezek.  29-32;  and  it 
  might  be  easily  shown  that  they  have  all  been  remarkably 
  fulfilled.  For  example,  the  singular  disappearance  of  Noph 
  (i.e.,  Memphis)  is  a  fulfilment  of  Jer.  46:19,  Ezek.  30:13. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Egypt,  that  troubles  or  oppresses;  anguish 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Egypt 
 
  Egypt:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Africa,  bordering  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between 
  Libya  and  the  Gaza  Strip 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,001,450  sq  km 
  land  area:  995,450  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  three  times  the  size  of  New 
  Mexico 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,689  km  Gaza  Strip  11  km  Israel  255  km 
  Libya  1,150  km  Sudan  1,273  km 
 
  Coastline:  2,450  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  administrative  boundary  with  Sudan  does  not 
  coincide  with  international  boundary  creating  the  "Hala'ib  Triangle," 
  a  barren  area  of  20,580  sq  km  tensions  over  this  disputed  area  began 
  to  escalate  in  1992  and  remain  high 
 
  Climate:  desert;  hot,  dry  summers  with  moderate  winters 
 
  Terrain:  vast  desert  plateau  interrupted  by  Nile  valley  and  delta 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  iron  ore,  phosphates, 
  manganese,  limestone,  gypsum,  talc,  asbestos,  lead,  zinc 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  3% 
  permanent  crops:  2% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  0% 
  forest  and  woodland:  0% 
  other:  95% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  25,850  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  agricultural  land  being  lost  to  urbanization  and 
  windblown  sands;  increasing  soil  salinization  below  Aswan  High  Dam; 
  desertification  oil  pollution  threatening  coral  reefs,  beaches,  and 
  marine  habitats;  other  water  pollution  from  agricultural  pesticides, 
  raw  sewage,  and  industrial  effluents;  very  limited  natural  fresh  water 
  resources  away  from  the  Nile  which  is  the  only  perennial  water  source; 
  rapid  growth  in  population  overstraining  natural  resources 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  droughts;  frequent  earthquakes,  flash 
  floods,  landslides,  volcanic  activity;  hot,  driving  windstorm  called 
  khamsin  occurs  in  spring;  duststorms  sandstorms 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law 
  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection, 
  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not  ratified 
  -  Desertification  Tropical  Timber  94 
 
  Note:  controls  Sinai  Peninsula,  only  land  bridge  between  Africa  and 
  remainder  of  Eastern  Hemisphere;  controls  Suez  Canal,  shortest  sea 
  link  between  Indian  Ocean  and  Mediterranean  Sea;  size,  and 
  juxtaposition  to  Israel,  establish  its  major  role  in  Middle  Eastern 
  geopolitics 
 
  Egypt:People 
 
  Population:  62,359,623  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  37%  (female  11,380,668;  male  11,872,728) 
  15-64  years:  59%  (female  18,250,706;  male  18,641,830) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  1,204,477;  male  1,009,214)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.95%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  28.69  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.86  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -0.35  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  74.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  61.12  years 
  male:  59.22  years 
  female:  63.12  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.67  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Egyptian(s) 
  adjective:  Egyptian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Eastern  Hamitic  stock  (Egyptians,  Bedouins,  and 
  Berbers)  99%,  Greek,  Nubian,  Armenian,  other  European  (primarily 
  Italian  and  French)  1% 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  (mostly  Sunni)  94%  (official  estimate),  Coptic 
  Christian  and  other  6%  (official  estimate) 
 
  Languages:  Arabic  (official),  English  and  French  widely  understood  by 
  educated  classes 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  48% 
  male:  63% 
  female:  34% 
 
  Labor  force:  16  million  (1994  est.) 
  by  occupation:  government,  public  sector  enterprises,  and  armed  forces 
  36%,  agriculture  34%,  privately  owned  service  and  manufacturing 
  enterprises  20%  (1984) 
  note:  shortage  of  skilled  labor;  2,500,000  Egyptians  work  abroad, 
  mostly  in  Saudi  Arabia  and  the  Gulf  Arab  states  (1993  est.) 
 
  Egypt:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Arab  Republic  of  Egypt 
  conventional  short  form:  Egypt 
  local  long  form:  Jumhuriyat  Misr  al-Arabiyah 
  local  short  form:  none 
  former:  United  Arab  Republic  (with  Syria) 
 
  Digraph:  EG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Cairo 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  26  governorates  (muhafazat,  singular  - 
  muhafazah);  Ad  Daqahliyah  Al  Bahr  al  Ahmar,  Al  Buhayrah  Al  Fayyum 
  Al  Gharbiyah  Al  Iskandariyah  Al  Isma'iliyah,  Al  Jizah,  Al  Minufiyah 
  Al  Minya,  Al  Qahirah  Al  Qalyubiyah  Al  Wadi  al  Jadid,  Ash  Sharqiyah 
  As  Suways  Aswan,  Asyu't,  Bani  Suwayf  Bur  Sa'id,  Dumyat  Janub  Sina, 
  Kafr  ash  Shaykh  Matruh  Qina,  Shamal  Sina,  Suhaj 
 
  Independence:  28  February  1922  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Revolution,  23  July  (1952) 
 
  Constitution:  11  September  1971 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law,  Islamic  law,  and  Napoleonic 
  codes;  judicial  review  by  Supreme  Court  and  Council  of  State  (oversees 
  validity  of  administrative  decisions);  accepts  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  and  compulsory 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Mohammed  Hosni  MUBARAK  (sworn  in  as 
  president  on  14  October  1981,  eight  days  after  the  assassination  of 
  President  SADAT);  national  referendum  held  4  October  1993  validated 
  Mubarak's  nomination  by  the  People's  Assembly  to  a  third  6-year 
  presidential  term 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Atef  Mohammed  Najib  SEDKY  (since  12 
  November  1986) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral 
  People's  Assembly  (Majlis  al-Cha'b):  elections  last  held  29  November 
  1990  (next  to  be  held  NA  November  1995);  results  -  NDP  86.3%,  NPUG 
  1.3%,  independents  12.4%;  seats  -  (454  total,  444  elected,  10 
  appointed  by  the  president)  NDP  383,  NPUG  6,  independents  55;  note  - 
  most  opposition  parties  boycotted;  NDP  figures  include  NDP  members  who 
  ran  as  independents  and  other  NDP-affiliated  independents 
  Advisory  Council  (Majlis  al-Shura):  functions  only  in  a  consultative 
  role;  elections  last  held  8  June  1989  (next  to  be  held  NA  June  1995); 
  results  -  NDP  100%;  seats  -  (258  total,  172  elected,  86  appointed  by 
  the  president)  NDP  172 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Constitutional  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  National  Democratic  Party  (NDP), 
  President  Mohammed  Hosni  MUBARAK,  leader,  is  the  dominant  party;  legal 
  opposition  parties  are  New  Wafd  Party  (NWP),  Fu'ad  SIRAJ  AL-DIN; 
  Socialist  Labor  Party,  Ibrahim  SHUKRI  National  Progressive  Unionist 
  Grouping  (NPUG),  Khalid  MUHYI-AL-DIN;  Socialist  Liberal  Party  (SLP), 
  Mustafa  Kamal  MURAD;  Democratic  Unionist  Party,  Mohammed 
  'Abd-al-Mun'im  TURK;  Umma  Party,  Ahmad  al-SABAHI;  Misr  al-Fatah  Party 
  (Young  Egypt  Party),  Gamal  RABIE;  Nasserist  Arab  Democratic  Party, 
  Dia'  al-din  DAWUD  Democratic  Peoples'  Party,  Anwar  AFIFI;  The  Greens 
  Party,  Kamal  KIRAH;  Social  Justice  Party,  Muhammad  'ABD-AL-'AL 
  note:  formation  of  political  parties  must  be  approved  by  government 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  despite  a  constitutional  ban 
  against  religious-based  parties,  the  technically  illegal  Muslim 
  Brotherhood  constitutes  MUBARAK's  potentially  most  significant 
  political  opposition;  MUBARAK  tolerated  limited  political  activity  by 
  the  Brotherhood  for  his  first  two  terms,  but  has  moved  more 
  aggressively  in  the  past  year  to  block  its  influence;  trade  unions  and 
  professional  associations  are  officially  sanctioned 
 
  Member  of:  ABEDA,  ACC,  AFESD  AL  AMF,  CAEU,  CCC,  ESCWA  FAO,  G-19, 
  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM,  OAPEC  OIC, 
  OPEC,  PCA,  UN  UNAMIR  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNOMIL  UNPROFOR  UPU, 
  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Ahmed  Maher  El  SAYED 
  chancery:  3521  International  Court  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  895-5400 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  244-4319,  5131 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  New  York,  and  San  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Edward  S.  WALKER,  Jr 
  embassy:  (North  Gate)  8,  Kamel  El-Din  Salah  Street,  Garden  City,  Cairo 
 
  mailing  address:  APO  AE  09839-4900 
  telephone:  [20]  (2)  3557371 
  FAX:  [20]  (2)  3573200 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  white,  and  black  with 
  the  national  emblem  (a  shield  superimposed  on  a  golden  eagle  facing 
  the  hoist  side  above  a  scroll  bearing  the  name  of  the  country  in 
  Arabic)  centered  in  the  white  band;  similar  to  the  flag  of  Yemen, 
  which  has  a  plain  white  band;  also  similar  to  the  flag  of  Syria  that 
  has  two  green  stars  and  to  the  flag  of  Iraq,  which  has  three  green 
  stars  (plus  an  Arabic  inscription)  in  a  horizontal  line  centered  in 
  the  white  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Half  of  Egypt's  GDP  originates  in  the  public  sector,  most 
  industrial  plants  being  owned  by  the  government.  Overregulation  holds 
  back  technical  modernization  and  foreign  investment.  Even  so  the 
  economy  grew  rapidly  during  the  late  1970s  and  early  1980s,  but  in 
  1986  the  collapse  of  world  oil  prices  and  an  increasingly  heavy  burden 
  of  debt  servicing  led  Egypt  to  begin  negotiations  with  the  IMF  for 
  balance-of-payments  support.  Egypt's  first  IMF  standby  arrangement 
  concluded  in  mid-1987  was  suspended  in  early  1988  because  of  the 
  government's  failure  to  adopt  promised  reforms.  Egypt  signed  a 
  follow-on  program  with  the  IMF  and  also  negotiated  a  structural 
  adjustment  loan  with  the  World  Bank  in  1991.  In  1991-93  the  government 
  made  solid  progress  on  administrative  reforms  such  as  liberalizing 
  exchange  and  interest  rates  but  resisted  implementing  major  structural 
  reforms  like  streamlining  the  public  sector.  As  a  result,  the  economy 
  has  not  gained  momentum  and  unemployment  has  become  a  growing  problem. 
  Egypt  probably  will  continue  making  uneven  progress  in  implementing 
  the  successor  programs  with  the  IMF  and  World  Bank  it  signed  onto  in 
  late  1993.  Tourism  has  plunged  since  1992  because  of  sporadic  attacks 
  by  Islamic  extremists  on  tourist  groups.  President  MUBARAK  has  cited 
  population  growth  as  the  main  cause  of  the  country's  economic 
  troubles.  The  addition  of  about  1.2  million  people  a  year  to  the 
  already  huge  population  of  62  million  exerts  enormous  pressure  on  the 
  5%  of  the  land  area  available  for  agriculture  along  the  Nile. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $151.5  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  1.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,490  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  20%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $18  billion 
  expenditures:  $19.4  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $3.8 
  billion  (FY94/95  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $3.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  FY93/94  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil  and  petroleum  products,  cotton  yarn,  raw 
  cotton,  textiles,  metal  products,  chemicals 
  partners:  EU  US  Japan 
 
  Imports:  $11.2  billion  (c.i.f.,  FY93/94  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  foods,  fertilizers,  wood 
  products,  durable  consumer  goods,  capital  goods 
  partners:  EU  US  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $31.2  billion  (December  1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  2.7%  (FY92/93  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  11,830,000  kW 
  production:  44.5  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  695  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  food  processing,  tourism,  chemicals,  petroleum, 
  construction,  cement,  metals 
 
  Agriculture:  cotton,  rice,  corn,  wheat,  beans,  fruit,  vegetables; 
  cattle,  water  buffalo,  sheep,  goats;  annual  fish  catch  about  140,000 
  metric  tons 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  a  transit  point  for  Southwest  Asian  and  Southeast  Asian 
  heroin  and  opium  moving  to  Europe  and  the  US  popular  transit  stop  for 
  Nigerian  couriers;  large  domestic  consumption  of  hashish  from  Lebanon 
  and  Syria 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $15.7  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-88),  $10.1  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $2.9  billion; 
  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $2.4  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Egyptian  pound  (#E)  =  100  piasters 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Egyptian  pounds  (#E)  per  US$1  -  3.4  (November  1994), 
  3.369  (November  1993),  3.345  (November  1992),  2.7072  (1990);  market 
  rate:  3.3920  (January  1995),  3.3920  (1994),  3.3704  (1993),  3.3300 
  (1992),  2.0000  (1991),  1.1000  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
 
  Egypt:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  4,895  km  (42  km  electrified;  951  km  double  track) 
  standard  gauge:  4,548  km  1,435-m  gauge  (42  km  electrified;  951  km 
  double  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  347  km  0.750-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  47,387  km 
  paved:  34,593  km 
  unpaved:  12,794  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  3,500  km  (including  the  Nile,  Lake  Nasser, 
  Alexandria-Cairo  Waterway,  and  numerous  smaller  canals  in  the  delta); 
  Suez  Canal,  193.5  km  long  (including  approaches),  used  by  oceangoing 
  vessels  drawing  up  to  16.1  meters  of  water 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,171  km  petroleum  products  596  km  natural  gas 
  460  km 
 
  Ports:  Alexandria,  Al  Ghurdaqah  Aswan,  Asyut  Bur  Safajah  Damietta 
  Marsa  Matruh  Port  Said  Suez 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  168  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  1,187,442  GRT/1,821,327 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  19,  cargo  83,  container  2,  oil  tanker  15, 
  passenger  30,  refrigerated  cargo  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  14, 
  short-sea  passenger  4 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  91 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  35 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  17 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  14 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  7 
 
  Egypt:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  600,000  telephones;  11  telephones/1,000  persons; 
  large  system  by  Third  World  standards  but  inadequate  for  present 
  requirements  and  undergoing  extensive  upgrading 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  principal  centers  at  Alexandria,  Cairo,  Al  Mansurah, 
  Ismailia  Suez,  and  Tanta  are  connected  by  coaxial  cable  and  microwave 
  radio  relay 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean  and  Indian  Ocean),  1 
  ARABSAT  and  1  INMARSAT  earth  station;  5  coaxial  submarine  cables, 
  microwave  troposcatter  (to  Sudan),  and  microwave  radio  relay  (to 
  Libya,  Israel,  and  Jordan) 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  39,  FM  6,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  41 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Egypt:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Air  Defense  Command 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  16,113,413;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  10,455,955;  males  reach  military  age  (20)  annually 
  648,724  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $3.5  billion,  8.2%  of 
  total  government  budget  (FY94/95) 
 
 
 




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