browse words by letter
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
agriculture

more about agriculture

agriculture


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Agriculture  \Ag"ri*cul`ture\  (?;  135),  n.  [L.  agricultura;  ager 
  field  +  cultura  cultivation:  cf  F.  agriculture.  See  {Acre} 
  and  {Culture}.] 
  The  art  or  science  of  cultivating  the  ground,  including  the 
  harvesting  of  crops,  and  the  rearing  and  management  of  live 
  stock;  tillage;  husbandry;  farming. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  agriculture 
  n  1:  a  large-scale  farming  enterprise  [syn:  {agribusiness}] 
  2:  the  practice  of  cultivating  the  land  or  raising  stock  [syn: 
  {farming},  {husbandry}] 
  3:  the  federal  department  that  administers  programs  that 
  provide  services  to  farmers  (including  research  and  soil 
  conservation  and  efforts  to  stabilize  the  farming 
  economy);  created  in  1862  [syn:  {Department  of  Agriculture}, 
  {Agriculture  Department},  {Agriculture}] 
  4:  the  class  of  people  engaged  in  growing  food 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Agriculture 
  Tilling  the  ground  (Gen.  2:15;  4:2,  3,  12)  and  rearing  cattle 
  were  the  chief  employments  in  ancient  times.  The  Egyptians 
  excelled  in  agriculture.  And  after  the  Israelites  entered  into 
  the  possession  of  the  Promised  Land,  their  circumstances 
  favoured  in  the  highest  degree  a  remarkable  development  of  this 
  art.  Agriculture  became  indeed  the  basis  of  the  Mosaic 
  commonwealth. 
 
  The  year  in  Palestine  was  divided  into  six  agricultural 
  periods:- 
 
  I.  SOWING  TIME. 
 
  Tisri,  latter  half 
 
  (beginning  about  the  autumnal  equinox.) 
 
  Marchesvan 
 
  Kisleu  former  half. 
 
  Early  rain  due  =  first  showers  of  autumn. 
 
  II  UNRIPE  TIME. 
 
  Kisleu  latter  half. 
 
  Tebet. 
 
  Sebat,  former  half. 
 
  III.  COLD  SEASON. 
 
  Sebat,  latter  half. 
 
  Adar. 
 
  [Veadar.] 
 
  Nisan,  former  half. 
 
  Latter  rain  due  (Deut.  11:14;  Jer.  5:24;  Hos.  6:3;  Zech.  10:1; 
 
  James  5:7;  Job  29:23). 
 
  IV  HARVEST  TIME. 
 
  Nisan,  latter  half. 
 
  (Beginning  about  vernal  equinox.  Barley  green.  Passover.) 
 
  Ijar. 
 
  Sivan,  former  half.,  Wheat  ripe.  Pentecost. 
 
  V.  SUMMER  (total  absence  of  rain) 
 
  Sivan,  latter  half. 
 
  Tammuz. 
 
  Ab  former  half. 
 
  VI  SULTRY  SEASON 
 
  Ab  latter  half. 
 
  Elul. 
 
  Tisri,  former  half.,  Ingathering  of  fruits. 
 
  The  six  months  from  the  middle  of  Tisri  to  the  middle  of  Nisan 
  were  occupied  with  the  work  of  cultivation,  and  the  rest  of  the 
  year  mainly  with  the  gathering  in  of  the  fruits.  The  extensive 
  and  easily-arranged  system  of  irrigation  from  the  rills  and 
  streams  from  the  mountains  made  the  soil  in  every  part  of 
  Palestine  richly  productive  (Ps.  1:3;  65:10;  Prov.  21:1;  Isa. 
  30:25;  32:2,  20;  Hos.  12:11),  and  the  appliances  of  careful 
  cultivation  and  of  manure  increased  its  fertility  to  such  an 
  extent  that  in  the  days  of  Solomon,  when  there  was  an  abundant 
  population,  "20,000  measures  of  wheat  year  by  year"  were  sent  to 
  Hiram  in  exchange  for  timber  (1  Kings  5:11),  and  in  large 
  quantities  also  wheat  was  sent  to  the  Tyrians  for  the 
  merchandise  in  which  they  traded  (Ezek.  27:17).  The  wheat 
  sometimes  produced  an  hundredfold  (Gen.  26:12;  Matt.  13:23). 
  Figs  and  pomegranates  were  very  plentiful  (Num.  13:23),  and  the 
  vine  and  the  olive  grew  luxuriantly  and  produced  abundant  fruit 
  (Deut.  33:24). 
 
  Lest  the  productiveness  of  the  soil  should  be  exhausted,  it 
  was  enjoined  that  the  whole  land  should  rest  every  seventh  year, 
  when  all  agricultural  labour  would  entirely  cease  (Lev.  25:1-7; 
  Deut.  15:1-10). 
 
  It  was  forbidden  to  sow  a  field  with  divers  seeds  (Deut. 
  22:9).  A  passer-by  was  at  liberty  to  eat  any  quantity  of  corn  or 
  grapes,  but  he  was  not  permitted  to  carry  away  any  (Deut.  23:24, 
  25;  Matt.  12:1).  The  poor  were  permitted  to  claim  the  corners  of 
  the  fields  and  the  gleanings.  A  forgotten  sheaf  in  the  field  was 
  to  be  left  also  for  the  poor.  (See  Lev.  19:9,  10;  Deut.  24:19.) 
  Agricultural  implements  and  operations. 
 
  The  sculptured  monuments  and  painted  tombs  of  Egypt  and 
  Assyria  throw  much  light  on  this  subject,  and  on  the  general 
  operations  of  agriculture.  Ploughs  of  a  simple  construction  were 
  known  in  the  time  of  Moses  (Deut.  22:10;  comp.  Job  1:14).  They 
  were  very  light,  and  required  great  attention  to  keep  them  in 
  the  ground  (Luke  9:62).  They  were  drawn  by  oxen  (Job  1:14),  cows 
  (1  Sam.  6:7),  and  asses  (Isa.  30:24);  but  an  ox  and  an  ass  must 
  not  be  yoked  together  in  the  same  plough  (Deut.  22:10).  Men 
  sometimes  followed  the  plough  with  a  hoe  to  break  the  clods 
  (Isa.  28:24).  The  oxen  were  urged  on  by  a  "goad,"  or  long  staff 
  pointed  at  the  end  so  that  if  occasion  arose  it  could  be  used 
  as  a  spear  also  (Judg.  3:31;  1  Sam.  13:21). 
 
  When  the  soil  was  prepared,  the  seed  was  sown  broadcast  over 
  the  field  (Matt.  13:3-8).  The  harrow"  mentioned  in  Job  39:10 
  was  not  used  to  cover  the  seeds,  but  to  break  the  clods,  being 
  little  more  than  a  thick  block  of  wood.  In  highly  irrigated 
  spots  the  seed  was  trampled  in  by  cattle  (Isa.  32:20);  but 
  doubtless  there  was  some  kind  of  harrow  also  for  covering  in  the 
  seed  scattered  in  the  furrows  of  the  field. 
 
  The  reaping  of  the  corn  was  performed  either  by  pulling  it  up 
  by  the  roots,  or  cutting  it  with  a  species  of  sickle,  according 
  to  circumstances.  The  corn  when  cut  was  generally  put  up  in 
  sheaves  (Gen.  37:7;  Lev.  23:10-15;  Ruth  2:7,  15;  Job  24:10;  Jer. 
  9:22;  Micah  4:12),  which  were  afterwards  gathered  to  the 
  threshing-floor  or  stored  in  barns  (Matt.  6:26). 
 
  The  process  of  threshing  was  performed  generally  by  spreading 
  the  sheaves  on  the  threshing-floor  and  causing  oxen  and  cattle 
  to  tread  repeatedly  over  them  (Deut.  25:4;  Isa.  28:28).  On 
  occasions  flails  or  sticks  were  used  for  this  purpose  (Ruth 
  2:17;  Isa.  28:27).  There  was  also  a  "threshing  instrument"  (Isa. 
  41:15;  Amos  1:3)  which  was  drawn  over  the  corn.  It  was  called  by 
  the  Hebrews  a  moreg,  a  threshing  roller  or  sledge  (2  Sam.  24:22; 
  1  Chr.  21:23;  Isa.  3:15).  It  was  somewhat  like  the  Roman 
  tribulum  or  threshing  instrument. 
 
  When  the  grain  was  threshed,  it  was  winnowed  by  being  thrown 
  up  against  the  wind  (Jer.  4:11),  and  afterwards  tossed  with 
  wooden  scoops  (Isa.  30:24).  The  shovel  and  the  fan  for  winnowing 
  are  mentioned  in  Ps  35:5,  Job  21:18,  Isa.  17:13.  The  refuse  of 
  straw  and  chaff  was  burned  (Isa.  5:24).  Freed  from  impurities, 
  the  grain  was  then  laid  up  in  granaries  till  used  (Deut.  28:8; 
  Prov.  3:10;  Matt.  6:26;  13:30;  Luke  12:18). 
 




more about agriculture