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jerusalem

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jerusalem


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Jerusalem  \Je*ru"sa*lem\,  n.  [Gr.  ?,  fr  Heb.  Y?r?sh[=a]laim.] 
  The  chief  city  of  Palestine,  intimately  associated  with  the 
  glory  of  the  Jewish  nation,  and  the  life  and  death  of  Jesus 
  Christ. 
 
  {Jerusalem  artichoke}  [Perh.  a  corrupt.  of  It  girasole  i.e., 
  sunflower,  or  turnsole.  See  {Gyre},  {Solar}.]  (Bot.) 
  a  An  American  plant,  a  perennial  species  of  sunflower 
  ({Helianthus  tuberosus}),  whose  tubers  are  sometimes  used 
  as  food. 
  b  One  of  the  tubers  themselves. 
 
  {Jerusalem  cherry}  (Bot.),  the  popular  name  of  either  of 
  either  of  two  species  of  {Solanum}  ({S.  Pseudo-capsicum} 
  and  {S.  capsicastrum}),  cultivated  as  ornamental  house 
  plants.  They  bear  bright  red  berries  of  about  the  size  of 
  cherries. 
 
  {Jerusalem  oak}  (Bot.),  an  aromatic  goosefoot  ({Chenopodium 
  Botrys}),  common  about  houses  and  along  roadsides. 
 
  {Jerusalem  sage}  (Bot.),  a  perennial  herb  of  the  Mint  family 
  ({Phlomis  tuberosa}). 
 
  {Jerusalem  thorn}  (Bot.),  a  spiny,  leguminous  tree 
  ({Parkinsonia  aculeata}),  widely  dispersed  in  warm 
  countries,  and  used  for  hedges. 
 
  {The  New  Jerusalem},  Heaven;  the  Celestial  City. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Jerusalem 
  n  :  capital  and  largest  city  of  the  modern  state  of  Israel;  a 
  holy  city  for  Jews  and  Christians  and  Moslems;  was  the 
  capital  of  an  ancient  kingdom  [syn:  {Jerusalem},  {capital 
  of  Israel}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Jerusalem,  AR 
  Zip  code(s):  72080 
  Jerusalem,  OH  (village,  FIPS  39130) 
  Location:  39.85219  N,  81.09532  W 
  Population  (1990):  144  (66  housing  units) 
  Area:  0.7  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  43747 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Jerusalem 
  called  also  Salem,  Ariel,  Jebus,  the  "city  of  God,"  the  "holy 
  city;"  by  the  modern  Arabs  el-Khuds,  meaning  "the  holy;"  once 
  "the  city  of  Judah"  (2  Chr.  25:28).  This  name  is  in  the  original 
  in  the  dual  form  and  means  "possession  of  peace,"  or 
  "foundation  of  peace."  The  dual  form  probably  refers  to  the  two 
  mountains  on  which  it  was  built,  viz.,  Zion  and  Moriah;  or  as 
  some  suppose,  to  the  two  parts  of  the  city,  the  upper"  and  the 
  "lower  city."  Jerusalem  is  a  "mountain  city  enthroned  on  a 
  mountain  fastness"  (comp.  Ps  68:15,  16;  87:1;  125:2;  76:1,  2; 
  122:3).  It  stands  on  the  edge  of  one  of  the  highest  table-lands 
  in  Palestine,  and  is  surrounded  on  the  south-eastern,  the 
  southern,  and  the  western  sides  by  deep  and  precipitous  ravines. 
 
  It  is  first  mentioned  in  Scripture  under  the  name  Salem  (Gen. 
  14:18;  comp.  Ps  76:2).  When  first  mentioned  under  the  name 
  Jerusalem,  Adonizedek  was  its  king  (Josh.  10:1).  It  is 
  afterwards  named  among  the  cities  of  Benjamin  (Judg.  19:10;  1 
  Chr.  11:4);  but  in  the  time  of  David  it  was  divided  between 
  Benjamin  and  Judah.  After  the  death  of  Joshua  the  city  was  taken 
  and  set  on  fire  by  the  men  of  Judah  (Judg.  1:1-8);  but  the 
  Jebusites  were  not  wholly  driven  out  of  it  The  city  is  not 
  again  mentioned  till  we  are  told  that  David  brought  the  head  of 
  Goliath  thither  (1  Sam.  17:54).  David  afterwards  led  his  forces 
  against  the  Jebusites  still  residing  within  its  walls,  and  drove 
  them  out  fixing  his  own  dwelling  on  Zion,  which  he  called  "the 
  city  of  David"  (2  Sam.  5:5-9;  1  Chr.  11:4-8).  Here  he  built  an 
  altar  to  the  Lord  on  the  threshing-floor  of  Araunah  the  Jebusite 
  (2  Sam.  24:15-25),  and  thither  he  brought  up  the  ark  of  the 
  covenant  and  placed  it  in  the  new  tabernacle  which  he  had 
  prepared  for  it  Jerusalem  now  became  the  capital  of  the 
  kingdom. 
 
  After  the  death  of  David,  Solomon  built  the  temple,  a  house 
  for  the  name  of  the  Lord,  on  Mount  Moriah  (B.C.  1010).  He  also 
  greatly  strengthened  and  adorned  the  city,  and  it  became  the 
  great  centre  of  all  the  civil  and  religious  affairs  of  the 
  nation  (Deut.  12:5;  comp.  12:14;  14:23;  16:11-16;  Ps  122). 
 
  After  the  disruption  of  the  kingdom  on  the  accession  to  the 
  throne  of  Rehoboam,  the  son  of  Solomon,  Jerusalem  became  the 
  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  the  two  tribes.  It  was  subsequently 
  often  taken  and  retaken  by  the  Egyptians,  the  Assyrians,  and  by 
  the  kings  of  Israel  (2  Kings  14:13,  14;  18:15,  16;  23:33-35; 
  24:14;  2  Chr.  12:9;  26:9;  27:3,  4;  29:3;  32:30;  33:11),  till 
  finally,  for  the  abounding  iniquities  of  the  nation,  after  a 
  siege  of  three  years,  it  was  taken  and  utterly  destroyed,  its 
  walls  razed  to  the  ground,  and  its  temple  and  palaces  consumed 
  by  fire,  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  the  king  of  Babylon  (2  Kings  25;  2 
  Chr.  36;  Jer.  39),  B.C.  588.  The  desolation  of  the  city  and  the 
  land  was  completed  by  the  retreat  of  the  principal  Jews  into 
  Egypt  (Jer.  40-44),  and  by  the  final  carrying  captive  into 
  Babylon  of  all  that  still  remained  in  the  land  (52:3),  so  that 
  it  was  left  without  an  inhabitant  (B.C.  582).  Compare  the 
  predictions,  Deut.  28;  Lev.  26:14-39. 
 
  But  the  streets  and  walls  of  Jerusalem  were  again  to  be  built, 
  in  troublous  times  (Dan.  9:16,  19,  25),  after  a  captivity  of 
  seventy  years.  This  restoration  was  begun  B.C.  536,  "in  the 
  first  year  of  Cyrus"  (Ezra  1:2,  3,  5-11).  The  Books  of  Ezra  and 
  Nehemiah  contain  the  history  of  the  re-building  of  the  city  and 
  temple,  and  the  restoration  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Jews, 
  consisting  of  a  portion  of  all  the  tribes.  The  kingdom  thus 
  constituted  was  for  two  centuries  under  the  dominion  of  Persia, 
  till  B.C.  331;  and  thereafter,  for  about  a  century  and  a  half, 
  under  the  rulers  of  the  Greek  empire  in  Asia,  till  B.C.  167.  For 
  a  century  the  Jews  maintained  their  independence  under  native 
  rulers,  the  Asmonean  princes.  At  the  close  of  this  period  they 
  fell  under  the  rule  of  Herod  and  of  members  of  his  family,  but 
  practically  under  Rome,  till  the  time  of  the  destruction  of 
  Jerusalem,  A.D.  70.  The  city  was  then  laid  in  ruins. 
 
  The  modern  Jerusalem  by-and-by  began  to  be  built  over  the 
  immense  beds  of  rubbish  resulting  from  the  overthrow  of  the 
  ancient  city;  and  whilst  it  occupies  certainly  the  same  site, 
  there  are  no  evidences  that  even  the  lines  of  its  streets  are 
  now  what  they  were  in  the  ancient  city.  Till  A.D.  131  the  Jews 
  who  still  lingered  about  Jerusalem  quietly  submitted  to  the 
  Roman  sway.  But  in  that  year  the  emperor  (Hadrian),  in  order  to 
  hold  them  in  subjection,  rebuilt  and  fortified  the  city.  The 
  Jews,  however,  took  possession  of  it  having  risen  under  the 
  leadership  of  one  Bar-Chohaba  (i.e.,  "the  son  of  the  star")  in 
  revolt  against  the  Romans.  Some  four  years  afterwards  (A.D. 
  135),  however,  they  were  driven  out  of  it  with  great  slaughter, 
  and  the  city  was  again  destroyed;  and  over  its  ruins  was  built  a 
  Roman  city  called  Aelia  Capitolina,  a  name  which  it  retained 
  till  it  fell  under  the  dominion  of  the  Mohammedans,  when  it  was 
  called  el-Khuds,  i.e.,  "the  holy." 
 
  In  A.D.  326  Helena,  mother  of  the  emperor  Constantine,  made  a 
  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  with  the  view  of  discovering  the  places 
  mentioned  in  the  life  of  our  Lord.  She  caused  a  church  to  be 
  built  on  what  was  then  supposed  to  be  the  place  of  the  nativity 
  at  Bethlehem.  Constantine,  animated  by  her  example,  searched  for 
  the  holy  sepulchre,  and  built  over  the  supposed  site  a 
  magnificent  church,  which  was  completed  and  dedicated  A.D.  335. 
  He  relaxed  the  laws  against  the  Jews  till  this  time  in  force, 
  and  permitted  them  once  a  year  to  visit  the  city  and  wail  over 
  the  desolation  of  "the  holy  and  beautiful  house." 
 
  In  A.D.  614  the  Persians,  after  defeating  the  Roman  forces  of 
  the  emperor  Heraclius  took  Jerusalem  by  storm,  and  retained  it 
  till  A.D.  637,  when  it  was  taken  by  the  Arabians  under  the 
  Khalif  Omar.  It  remained  in  their  possession  till  it  passed,  in 
  A.D.  960,  under  the  dominion  of  the  Fatimite  khalifs  of  Egypt, 
  and  in  A.D.  1073  under  the  Turcomans.  In  A.D.  1099  the  crusader 
  Godfrey  of  Bouillon  took  the  city  from  the  Moslems  with  great 
  slaughter,  and  was  elected  king  of  Jerusalem.  He  converted  the 
  Mosque  of  Omar  into  a  Christian  cathedral.  During  the 
  eighty-eight  years  which  followed,  many  churches  and  convents 
  were  erected  in  the  holy  city.  The  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre 
  was  rebuilt  during  this  period,  and  it  alone  remains  to  this 
  day  In  A.D.  1187  the  sultan  Saladin  wrested  the  city  from  the 
  Christians.  From  that  time  to  the  present  day  with  few 
  intervals,  Jerusalem  has  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Moslems. 
  It  has  however,  during  that  period  been  again  and  again  taken 
  and  retaken,  demolished  in  great  part  and  rebuilt,  no  city  in 
  the  world  having  passed  through  so  many  vicissitudes. 
 
  In  the  year  1850  the  Greek  and  Latin  monks  residing  in 
  Jerusalem  had  a  fierce  dispute  about  the  guardianship  of  what 
  are  called  the  "holy  places."  In  this  dispute  the  emperor 
  Nicholas  of  Russia  sided  with  the  Greeks,  and  Louis  Napoleon, 
  the  emperor  of  the  French,  with  the  Latins.  This  led  the  Turkish 
  authorities  to  settle  the  question  in  a  way  unsatisfactory  to 
  Russia.  Out  of  this  there  sprang  the  Crimean  War,  which  was 
  protracted  and  sanguinary,  but  which  had  important  consequences 
  in  the  way  of  breaking  down  the  barriers  of  Turkish 
  exclusiveness. 
 
  Modern  Jerusalem  "lies  near  the  summit  of  a  broad 
  mountain-ridge,  which  extends  without  interruption  from  the 
  plain  of  Esdraelon  to  a  line  drawn  between  the  southern  end  of 
  the  Dead  Sea  and  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  Mediterranean." 
  This  high,  uneven  table-land  is  everywhere  from  20  to  25 
  geographical  miles  in  breadth.  It  was  anciently  known  as  the 
  mountains  of  Ephraim  and  Judah. 
 
  "Jerusalem  is  a  city  of  contrasts,  and  differs  widely  from 
  Damascus,  not  merely  because  it  is  a  stone  town  in  mountains, 
  whilst  the  latter  is  a  mud  city  in  a  plain,  but  because  while  in 
  Damascus  Moslem  religion  and  Oriental  custom  are  unmixed  with 
  any  foreign  element,  in  Jerusalem  every  form  of  religion,  every 
  nationality  of  East  and  West,  is  represented  at  one  time." 
 
  Jerusalem  is  first  mentioned  under  that  name  in  the  Book  of 
  Joshua,  and  the  Tell-el-Amarna  collection  of  tablets  includes 
  six  letters  from  its  Amorite  king  to  Egypt,  recording  the  attack 
  of  the  Abiri  about  B.C.  1480.  The  name  is  there  spelt  Uru-Salim 
  ("city  of  peace").  Another  monumental  record  in  which  the  Holy 
  City  is  named  is  that  of  Sennacherib's  attack  in  B.C.  702.  The 
  "camp  of  the  Assyrians"  was  still  shown  about  A.D.  70,  on  the 
  flat  ground  to  the  north-west,  included  in  the  new  quarter  of 
  the  city. 
 
  The  city  of  David  included  both  the  upper  city  and  Millo,  and 
  was  surrounded  by  a  wall  built  by  David  and  Solomon,  who  appear 
  to  have  restored  the  original  Jebusite  fortifications.  The  name 
  Zion  (or  Sion)  appears  to  have  been  like  Ariel  ("the  hearth  of 
  God"),  a  poetical  term  for  Jerusalem,  but  in  the  Greek  age  was 
  more  specially  used  of  the  Temple  hill.  The  priests'  quarter 
  grew  up  on  Ophel,  south  of  the  Temple,  where  also  was  Solomon's 
  Palace  outside  the  original  city  of  David.  The  walls  of  the  city 
  were  extended  by  Jotham  and  Manasseh  to  include  this  suburb  and 
  the  Temple  (2  Chr.  27:3;  33:14). 
 
  Jerusalem  is  now  a  town  of  some  50,000  inhabitants,  with 
  ancient  mediaeval  walls,  partly  on  the  old  lines,  but  extending 
  less  far  to  the  south.  The  traditional  sites,  as  a  rule  were 
  first  shown  in  the  4th  and  later  centuries  A.D.,  and  have  no 
  authority.  The  results  of  excavation  have  however,  settled  most 
  of  the  disputed  questions,  the  limits  of  the  Temple  area,  and 
  the  course  of  the  old  walls  having  been  traced. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Jerusalem,  vision  of  peace 
 




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