browse words by letter
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
israel

more about israel

israel


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Jacob  \Ja"cob\,  n.  [Cf.  F.  Jacob.  See  2d  {Jack}.] 
  A  Hebrew  patriarch  (son  of  Isaac,  and  ancestor  of  the  Jews), 
  who  in  a  vision  saw  a  ladder  reaching  up  to  heaven  (--Gen. 
  xxviii.  12);  --  also  called  {Israel}. 
 
  And  Jacob  said  .  .  .  with  my  staff  I  passed  over  this 
  Jordan,  and  now  I  am  become  two  bands.  --Gen.  xxxii 
  9,  10. 
 
  Thy  name  shall  be  called  no  more  Jacob,  but  Israel. 
  --Gen.  xxxii 
  28. 
 
  {Jacob's  ladder}. 
  a  (Bot.)  A  perennial  herb  of  the  genus  {Polemonium}  ({P. 
  c[oe]ruleum),  having  corymbs  of  drooping  flowers,  usually 
  blue.  Gray}. 
  b  (Naut.)  A  rope  ladder,  with  wooden  steps,  for  going 
  aloft.  --R.  H.  Dana,  Jr 
  c  (Naut.)  A  succession  of  short  cracks  in  a  defective  spar. 
 
 
  {Jacob's  membrane}.  See  {Retina}. 
 
  {Jacob's  staff}. 
  a  A  name  given  to  many  forms  of  staff  or  weapon,  especially 
  in  the  Middle  Ages;  a  pilgrim's  staff.  [Obs.]  --Spenser. 
  b  (Surveying)  See  under  {Staff}. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Israel 
  n  :  Jewish  republic  in  southwestern  Asia  at  eastern  end  of 
  Mediterranean;  formerly  part  of  Palestine  [syn:  {Israel}, 
  {Yisrael},  {Zion}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Israel 
  the  name  conferred  on  Jacob  after  the  great  prayer-struggle  at 
  Peniel  (Gen.  32:28),  because  "as  a  prince  he  had  power  with  God 
  and  prevailed."  (See  {JACOB}.)  This  is  the  common  name 
  given  to  Jacob's  descendants.  The  whole  people  of  the  twelve 
  tribes  are  called  "Israelites,"  the  "children  of  Israel"  (Josh. 
  3:17;  7:25;  Judg.  8:27;  Jer.  3:21),  and  the  "house  of  Israel" 
  (Ex.  16:31;  40:38). 
 
  This  name  Israel  is  sometimes  used  emphatically  for  the  true 
  Israel  (Ps.  73:1:  Isa.  45:17;  49:3;  John  1:47;  Rom.  9:6;  11:26). 
 
  After  the  death  of  Saul  the  ten  tribes  arrogated  to  themselves 
  this  name  as  if  they  were  the  whole  nation  (2  Sam.  2:9,  10,  17, 
  28;  3:10,  17;  19:40-43),  and  the  kings  of  the  ten  tribes  were 
  called  "kings  of  Israel,"  while  the  kings  of  the  two  tribes  were 
  called  "kings  of  Judah." 
 
  After  the  Exile  the  name  Israel  was  assumed  as  designating  the 
  entire  nation. 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  Israel,  who  prevails  with  God 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Israel 
 
  (also  see  separate  Gaza  Strip  and  West  Bank  entries)  Note:  The 
  territories  occupied  by  Israel  since  the  1967  war  are  not  included  in 
  the  data  below.  In  keeping  with  the  framework  established  at  the 
  Madrid  Conference  in  October  1991,  bilateral  negotiations  are  being 
  conducted  between  Israel  and  Palestinian  representatives,  Syria,  and 
  Jordan  to  determine  the  final  status  of  the  occupied  territories.  On 
  25  April  1982,  Israel  withdrew  from  the  Sinai  pursuant  to  the  1979 
  Israel-Egypt  Peace  treaty.  Outstanding  territorial  and  other  disputes 
  with  Jordan  were  resolved  in  the  26  October  1994  Israel-Jordan  Treaty 
  of  Peace. 
 
  Israel:Geography 
 
  Location:  Middle  East,  bordering  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between  Egypt 
  and  Lebanon 
 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  20,770  sq  km 
  land  area:  20,330  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  New  Jersey 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,006  km  Egypt  255  km  Gaza  Strip  51  km 
  Jordan  238  km  Lebanon  79  km  Syria  76  km  West  Bank  307  km 
 
  Coastline:  273  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  to  depth  of  exploitation 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  separated  from  Lebanon,  Syria,  and  the  West 
  Bank  by  the  1949  Armistice  Line  the  Gaza  Strip  and  Jericho  area, 
  formerly  occupied  by  Israel,  are  now  administered  largely  by  the 
  Palestinian  Authority;  other  areas  of  the  West  Bank  outside  Jericho 
  are  administered  jointly  by  Israel  and  the  Palestinian  Authority; 
  Golan  Heights  is  Israeli  occupied;  Israeli  troops  in  southern  Lebanon 
  since  June  1982 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  hot  and  dry  in  southern  and  eastern  desert  areas 
 
  Terrain:  Negev  desert  in  the  south;  low  coastal  plain;  central 
  mountains;  Jordan  Rift  Valley 
 
  Natural  resources:  copper,  phosphates,  bromide,  potash,  clay,  sand, 
  sulfur,  asphalt,  manganese,  small  amounts  of  natural  gas  and  crude  oil 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  17% 
  permanent  crops:  5% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  40% 
  forest  and  woodland:  6% 
  other:  32% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  2,140  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  limited  arable  land  and  natural  fresh  water  resources 
  pose  serious  constraints;  desertification  air  pollution  from 
  industrial  and  vehicle  emissions;  groundwater  pollution  from 
  industrial  and  domestic  waste,  chemical  fertilizers,  and  pesticides 
  natural  hazards:  sandstorms  may  occur  during  spring  and  summer 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Endangered  Species, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Climate  Change,  Desertification 
  Marine  Life  Conservation 
 
  Note:  there  are  199  Jewish  settlements  and  civilian  land  use  sites  in 
  the  West  Bank,  42  in  the  Israeli-occupied  Golan  Heights,  24  in  the 
  Gaza  Strip,  and  25  in  East  Jerusalem  (August  1994  est.) 
 
  Israel:People 
 
  Population:  5,433,134  (July  1995  est.) 
  note:  includes  122,000  Jewish  settlers  in  the  West  Bank,  14,500  in  the 
  Israeli-occupied  Golan  Heights,  4,800  in  the  Gaza  Strip,  and  149,000 
  in  East  Jerusalem  (August  1994  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  29% 
  15-64  years:  61% 
  65  years  and  over:  10% 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.4%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  20.39  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.38  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  8.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  78.14  years 
  male:  76  years 
  female:  80.39  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.81  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Israeli(s) 
  adjective:  Israeli 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Jewish  82%  (Israel  born  50%,  Europe/Americas/Oceania 
  born  20%,  Africa  born  7%,  Asia  born  5%),  non-Jewish  18%  (mostly  Arab) 
  (1993  est.) 
 
  Religions:  Judaism  82%,  Islam  14%  (mostly  Sunni  Muslim),  Christian  2%, 
  Druze  and  other  2% 
 
  Languages:  Hebrew  (official),  Arabic  used  officially  for  Arab 
  minority,  English  most  commonly  used  foreign  language 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1992) 
  total  population:  95% 
  male:  97% 
  female:  93% 
 
  Labor  force:  1.9  million  (1992) 
  by  occupation:  public  services  29.3%,  industry  22.1%,  commerce  13.9%, 
  finance  and  business  10.4%,  personal  and  other  services  7.4%, 
  construction  6.5%,  transport,  storage,  and  communications  6.3%, 
  agriculture,  forestry,  and  fishing  3.5%,  other  0.6%  (1992) 
 
  Israel:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  State  of  Israel 
  conventional  short  form:  Israel 
  local  long  form:  Medinat  Yisra'el 
  local  short  form:  Yisra'el 
 
  Digraph:  IS 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Jerusalem 
  note:  Israel  proclaimed  Jerusalem  its  capital  in  1950,  but  the  US 
  like  nearly  all  other  countries,  does  not  recognize  this  status,  and 
  maintains  its  Embassy  in  Tel  Aviv 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  6  districts  (mehozot,  singular  -  mehoz); 
  Central,  Haifa,  Jerusalem,  Northern,  Southern,  Tel  Aviv 
 
  Independence:  14  May  1948  (from  League  of  Nations  mandate  under 
  British  administration) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  14  May  1948  (Israel  declared 
  independence  on  14  May  1948,  but  the  Jewish  calendar  is  lunar  and  the 
  holiday  may  occur  in  April  or  May) 
 
  Constitution:  no  formal  constitution;  some  of  the  functions  of  a 
  constitution  are  filled  by  the  Declaration  of  Establishment  (1948), 
  the  basic  laws  of  the  parliament  (Knesset),  and  the  Israeli 
  citizenship  law 
 
  Legal  system:  mixture  of  English  common  law,  British  Mandate 
  regulations,  and  in  personal  matters,  Jewish,  Christian,  and  Muslim 
  legal  systems;  in  December  1985,  Israel  informed  the  UN  Secretariat 
  that  it  would  no  longer  accept  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Ezer  WEIZMAN  (since  13  May  1993)  election 
  last  held  24  March  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA  March  1999);  results  - 
  Ezer  WEIZMAN  elected  by  Knesset 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Yitzhak  RABIN  (since  NA  July  1992) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  selected  from  and  approved  by  the  Knesset 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  parliament  (Knesset):  elections  last  held  NA  June  1992  (next  to  be 
  held  by  NA  1996);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (120 
  total)  Labor  44,  Likud  32,  MERETZ  12,  Tzomet  8,  National  Religious 
  Party  6,  SHAS  6,  United  Torah  Jewry  4,  Democratic  Front  for  Peace  and 
  Equality  Hadash  3,  Moledet  3,  Arab  Democratic  Party  2;  note  -  in 
  1994  four  legislators  broke  party  ranks,  resulting  in  the  following 
  new  distribution  of  seats  -  Labor  Party  44,  Likud  bloc  32,  MERETZ  12, 
  National  Religious  Party  6,  SHAS  6,  Tzomet  5,  United  Torah  Jewry  4, 
  Democratic  Front  for  Peace  and  Equality  Hadash  3,  Moledet  2,  Arab 
  Democratic  Party  2,  independents  4  (1  in  coalition,  3  voting  with 
  opposition) 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  members  of  the  government:  Labor  Party,  Prime  Minister  Yitzhak  RABIN; 
  MERETZ,  Minister  of  Communications  Shulamit  ALONI;  independent,  Gonen 
  SEGEV 
  not  in  coalition,  but  voting  with  the  government:  Democratic  Front  for 
  Peace  and  Equality  (Hadash),  Hashim  MAHAMID  Arab  Democratic  Party, 
  Abd  al  Wahab  DARAWSHAH 
  opposition  parties:  Likud  Party,  Binyamin  NETANYAHU  Tzomet  Rafael 
  EITAN;  National  Religious  Party,  Zevulun  HAMMER;  United  Torah  Jewry, 
  Avraham  SHAPIRA  Moledet  Rehavam  ZEEVI  Peace  Guard  (independent), 
  Shaul  GUTMAN;  SHAS,  Arieh  DERI 
  note:  Israel  currently  has  a  coalition  government  comprising  2  parties 
  and  an  independent  that  hold  57  seats  of  the  Knesset's  120  seats 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Gush  Emunim,  Israeli  nationalists 
  advocating  Jewish  settlement  on  the  West  Bank  and  Gaza  Strip;  Peace 
  Now  supports  territorial  concessions  in  the  West  Bank  and  is  critical 
  of  government's  Lebanon  policy 
 
  Member  of:  AG  (observer),  CCC,  CE  (observer),  CERN  (observer),  EBRD, 
  ECE,  FAO,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC, 
  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  OAS 
  (observer),  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO  WIPO, 
  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Itamar  RABINOVICH 
  chancery:  3514  International  Drive  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  364-5500 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  364-5610 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Boston,  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles, 
  Miami,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  and  San  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Martin  INDYK 
  embassy:  71  Hayarkon  Street,  Tel  Aviv 
  mailing  address:  PSC  98,  Box  100,  Tel  Aviv;  APO  AE  09830 
  telephone:  [972]  (3)  517-4338 
  FAX:  [972]  (3)  663-449 
  consulate(s)  general:  Jerusalem 
 
  Flag:  white  with  a  blue  hexagram  (six-pointed  linear  star)  known  as 
  the  Magen  David  (Shield  of  David)  centered  between  two  equal 
  horizontal  blue  bands  near  the  top  and  bottom  edges  of  the  flag 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Israel  has  a  market  economy  with  substantial  government 
  participation.  It  depends  on  imports  of  crude  oil,  grains,  raw 
  materials,  and  military  equipment.  Despite  limited  natural  resources, 
  Israel  has  intensively  developed  its  agricultural  and  industrial 
  sectors  over  the  past  20  years.  Industry  employs  about  22%  of  Israeli 
  workers,  construction  6.5%,  agriculture,  forestry,  and  fishing  3.5%, 
  and  services  most  of  the  rest.  Israel  is  largely  self-sufficient  in 
  food  production  except  for  grains.  Diamonds,  high-technology 
  equipment,  and  agricultural  products  (fruits  and  vegetables)  are 
  leading  exports.  Israel  usually  posts  current  account  deficits,  which 
  are  covered  by  large  transfer  payments  from  abroad  and  by  foreign 
  loans.  Roughly  half  of  the  government's  external  debt  is  owed  to  the 
  United  States,  which  is  its  major  source  of  economic  and  military  aid. 
  To  earn  needed  foreign  exchange,  Israel  has  been  targeting 
  high-technology  niches  in  international  markets,  such  as  medical 
  scanning  equipment.  The  influx  of  Jewish  immigrants  from  the  former 
  USSR,  which  topped  450,000  during  the  period  1990-94,  increased 
  unemployment,  intensified  housing  problems,  and  strained  the 
  government  budget.  At  the  same  time,  the  immigrants  bring  to  the 
  economy  valuable  scientific  and  professional  expertise. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $70.1  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  6.8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $13,880  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  14.5%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  7.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $42.3  billion 
  expenditures:  $45.4  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $11.1 
  billion  (FY92/93) 
 
  Exports:  $16.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  cut  diamonds,  chemicals, 
  textiles  and  apparel,  agricultural  products,  metals 
  partners:  US  EU  Japan 
 
  Imports:  $22.5  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  military  equipment,  investment  goods,  rough  diamonds, 
  oil,  other  productive  inputs,  consumer  goods 
  partners:  EU  US  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $25.9  billion  (November  1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  8%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  about 
  30%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  4,140,000  kW 
  production:  23  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  4,290  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  food  processing,  diamond  cutting  and  polishing,  textiles 
  and  apparel,  chemicals,  metal  products,  military  equipment,  transport 
  equipment,  electrical  equipment,  miscellaneous  machinery,  potash 
  mining,  high-technology  electronics,  tourism 
 
  Agriculture:  citrus  and  other  fruits,  vegetables,  cotton;  beef, 
  poultry,  dairy  products 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  increasingly  concerned  about  cocaine  and  heroin  abuse 
  and  trafficking 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-90),  $18.2  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $2.8  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  new  Israeli  shekel  (NIS)  =  100  new  agorot 
 
  Exchange  rates:  new  Israeli  shekels  (NIS)  per  US$1  -  3.070  (December 
  1994),  3.0111  (1994),  2.8301  (1993),  2.4591  (1992),  2.2791  (1991), 
  2.0162  (1990),  1.9164  (1989) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year  (since  1  January  1992) 
 
  Israel:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  520  km  (diesel  operated;  single  track) 
  standard  gauge:  520  km  1.435-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  13,461  km 
  paved:  13,461  km 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  708  km  petroleum  products  290  km  natural  gas  89 
  km 
 
  Ports:  Ashdod,  Ashqelon,  Elat,  Hadera,  Haifa,  Tel  Aviv-Yafo 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  32  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  624,861  GRT/720,765  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  7,  container  22,  refrigerated  cargo  2, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  57 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  8 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  31 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
 
  Israel:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  1,800,000  telephones;  most  highly  developed  in  the 
  Middle  East  although  not  the  largest 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  good  system  of  coaxial  cable  and  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  3  submarine  cables;  3  INTELSAT  (2  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1 
  Indian  Ocean)  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  9,  FM  45,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  20 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Israel:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Israel  Defense  Forces  (includes  ground,  naval,  and  air 
  components),  Pioneer  Fighting  Youth  (Nahal),  Frontier  Guard,  Chen 
  (women);  note  -  historically  there  have  been  no  separate  Israeli 
  military  services 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,309,502;  females  age  15-49 
  1,283,923;  males  fit  for  military  service  1,072,501;  females  fit  for 
  military  service  1,047,575;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  47,950;  females  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  45,839  (1995  est.) 
  note:  military  service  mandatory  for  men  and  women 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $6.5  billion,  about 
  10%  of  GDP  (1995) 
 
 
 




more about israel