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iraq

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iraq


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Iraq 
  n  :  a  republic  in  the  Middle  East;  the  ancient  civilization  of 
  Mesopotamia  was  in  the  area  now  known  as  Iraq  [syn:  {Iraq}, 
  {Al-Iraq},  {Irak}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Iraq 
 
  Iraq:Geography 
 
  Location:  Middle  East,  bordering  the  Persian  Gulf,  between  Iran  and 
  Kuwait 
 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  437,072  sq  km 
  land  area:  432,162  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  twice  the  size  of  Idaho 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  3,631  km  Iran  1,458  km  Jordan  181  km  Kuwait 
  242  km  Saudi  Arabia  814  km  Syria  605  km  Turkey  331  km 
 
  Coastline:  58  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  not  specified 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Iran  and  Iraq  restored  diplomatic  relations  in 
  1990  but  are  still  trying  to  work  out  written  agreements  settling 
  outstanding  disputes  from  their  eight-year  war  concerning  border 
  demarcation,  prisoners-of-war,  and  freedom  of  navigation  and 
  sovereignty  over  the  Shatt  al  Arab  waterway;  in  November  1994,  Iraq 
  formally  accepted  the  UN-demarcated  border  with  Kuwait  which  had  been 
  spelled  out  in  Security  Council  Resolutions  687  (1991),  773  (1993), 
  and  883  (1993);  this  formally  ends  earlier  claims  to  Kuwait  and  to 
  Bubiyan  and  Warbah  islands;  potential  dispute  over  water  development 
  plans  by  Turkey  for  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers 
 
  Climate:  mostly  desert;  mild  to  cool  winters  with  dry,  hot,  cloudless 
  summers;  northern  mountainous  regions  along  Iranian  and  Turkish 
  borders  experience  cold  winters  with  occasionally  heavy  snows  which 
  melt  in  early  spring,  sometimes  causing  extensive  flooding  in  central 
  and  southern  Iraq 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  broad  plains;  reedy  marshes  along  Iranian  border  in 
  south;  mountains  along  borders  with  Iran  and  Turkey 
 
  Natural  resources:  petroleum,  natural  gas,  phosphates,  sulfur 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  12% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  9% 
  forest  and  woodland:  3% 
  other:  75% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  25,500  sq  km  (1989  est) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  government  water  control  projects  have  drained  most  of 
  the  inhabited  marsh  areas  west  of  Al  Qurnah  by  drying  up  or  diverting 
  the  feeder  streams  and  rivers;  a  once  sizable  population  of  Shi'a 
  Muslims,  who  have  inhabited  these  areas  for  thousands  of  years,  has 
  been  displaced;  furthermore,  the  destruction  of  the  natural  habitat 
  poses  serious  threats  to  the  area's  wildlife  populations;  inadequate 
  supplies  of  potable  water;  development  of  Tigris-Euphrates  Rivers 
  system  contingent  upon  agreements  with  upstream  riparian  Turkey;  air 
  and  water  pollution;  soil  degradation  salinization  and  erosion; 
  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  duststorms  sandstorms,  floods 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Environmental  Modification 
 
  Iraq:People 
 
  Population:  20,643,769  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  48%  (female  4,850,028;  male  5,009,513) 
  15-64  years:  49%  (female  5,021,710;  male  5,125,191) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  338,790;  male  298,537)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  3.72%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  43.6  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.82  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.39  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  62.4  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  66.52  years 
  male:  65.54  years 
  female:  67.56  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.56  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Iraqi(s) 
  adjective:  Iraqi 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Arab  75%-80%,  Kurdish  15%-20%,  Turkoman,  Assyrian  or 
  other  5% 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  97%  (Shi'a  60%-65%,  Sunni  32%-37%),  Christian  or 
  other  3% 
 
  Languages:  Arabic,  Kurdish  (official  in  Kurdish  regions),  Assyrian, 
  Armenian 
 
  Literacy:  age  15-45  can  read  and  write  (1985) 
  total  population:  89% 
  male:  90% 
  female:  88% 
 
  Labor  force:  4.4  million  (1989) 
  by  occupation:  services  48%,  agriculture  30%,  industry  22% 
  note:  severe  labor  shortage;  expatriate  labor  force  was  about 
  1,600,000  (July  1990);  since  then,  it  has  declined  substantially 
 
  Iraq:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Iraq 
  conventional  short  form:  Iraq 
  local  long  form:  Al  Jumhuriyah  al  Iraqiyah 
  local  short  form:  Al  Iraq 
 
  Digraph:  IZ 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Baghdad 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  18  provinces  (muhafazat,  singular  - 
  muhafazah);  Al  Anbar,  Al  Basrah,  Al  Muthanna  Al  Qadisiyah  An  Najaf, 
  Arbil,  As  Sulaymaniyah  At  Ta'mim,  Babil,  Baghdad,  Dahuk,  Dhi  Qar, 
  Diyala  Karbala',  Maysan,  Ninawa  Salah  ad  Din,  Wasit 
 
  Independence:  3  October  1932  (from  League  of  Nations  mandate  under 
  British  administration) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Revolution,  17  July  (1968) 
 
  Constitution:  22  September  1968,  effective  16  July  1970  (provisional 
  Constitution);  new  constitution  drafted  in  1990  but  not  adopted 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Islamic  law  in  special  religious  courts,  civil 
  law  system  elsewhere;  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  SADDAM  Husayn  (since  16  July  1979);  Vice 
  President  Taha  Muhyi  al-Din  MARUF  (since  21  April  1974);  Vice 
  President  Taha  Yasin  RAMADAN  (since  23  March  1991) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  SADDAM  Husayn  (since  NA  May  1994); 
  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Tariq  Mikhail  AZIZ  (since  NA  1979) 
  Revolutionary  Command  Council:  Chairman  SADDAM  Husayn,  Vice  Chairman 
  Izzat  IBRAHIM  al-Duri 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly  (Majlis  al-Watani):  elections  last  held  on  1  April 
  1989  (next  to  be  held  NA);  results  -  Sunni  Arabs  53%,  Shi'a  Arabs  30%, 
  Kurds  15%,  Christians  2%  (est.);  seats  -  (250  total)  number  of  seats 
  by  party  NA 
  note:  in  northern  Iraq,  a  "Kurdish  Assembly"  was  elected  in  May  1992 
  and  calls  for  Kurdish  self-determination  within  a  federated  Iraq;  the 
  assembly  is  not  recognized  by  the  Baghdad  government 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Court  of  Cassation 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Ba'th  Party 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  political  parties  and  activity 
  severely  restricted;  opposition  to  regime  from  disaffected  members  of 
  the  Ba'th  Party,  Army  officers,  and  Shi'a  religious  and  ethnic  Kurdish 
  dissidents;  the  Green  Party  (government-controlled) 
 
  Member  of:  ABEDA,  ACC,  AFESD  AL  AMF,  CAEU,  CCC,  ESCWA  FAO,  G-19, 
  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAPEC  OIC,  OPEC, 
  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Iraq  has  an  Interest  Section  in  the  Algerian  Embassy 
  in  Washington,  DC 
  chancery:  Iraqi  Interests  Section,  1801  P  Street  NW  Washington,  DC 
  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  483-7500 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  462-5066 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  (vacant);  note  -  operations  have  been  temporarily 
  suspended;  a  US  Interests  Section  is  located  in  Poland's  embassy  in 
  Baghdad 
  embassy:  Masbah  Quarter  (opposite  the  Foreign  Ministry  Club),  Baghdad 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  2447  Alwiyah  Baghdad 
  telephone:  [964]  (1)  719-6138,  719-6139,  718-1840,  719-3791 
  FAX:  Telex  212287 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  white,  and  black  with 
  three  green  five-pointed  stars  in  a  horizontal  line  centered  in  the 
  white  band;  the  phrase  ALLAHU  AKBAR  (God  is  Great)  in  green  Arabic 
  script  -  Allahu  to  the  right  of  the  middle  star  and  Akbar  to  the  left 
  of  the  middle  star  -  was  added  in  January  1991  during  the  Persian  Gulf 
  crisis;  similar  to  the  flag  of  Syria  that  has  two  stars  but  no  script 
  and  the  flag  of  Yemen  that  has  a  plain  white  band;  also  similar  to  the 
  flag  of  Egypt  that  has  a  symbolic  eagle  centered  in  the  white  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  Ba'thist  regime  engages  in  extensive  central  planning 
  and  management  of  industrial  production  and  foreign  trade  while 
  leaving  some  small-scale  industry  and  services  and  most  agriculture  to 
  private  enterprise.  The  economy  has  been  dominated  by  the  oil  sector, 
  which  has  traditionally  provided  about  95%  of  foreign  exchange 
  earnings.  In  the  1980s,  financial  problems  caused  by  massive 
  expenditures  in  the  eight-year  war  with  Iran  and  damage  to  oil  export 
  facilities  by  Iran,  led  the  government  to  implement  austerity  measures 
  and  to  borrow  heavily  and  later  reschedule  foreign  debt  payments. 
  After  the  end  of  hostilities  in  1988,  oil  exports  gradually  increased 
  with  the  construction  of  new  pipelines  and  restoration  of  damaged 
  facilities.  Agricultural  development  remained  hampered  by  labor 
  shortages,  salinization  and  dislocations  caused  by  previous  land 
  reform  and  collectivization  programs.  The  industrial  sector,  although 
  accorded  high  priority  by  the  government,  also  was  under  financial 
  constraints.  Iraq's  seizure  of  Kuwait  in  August  1990,  subsequent 
  international  economic  embargoes,  and  military  action  by  an 
  international  coalition  beginning  in  January  1991  drastically  changed 
  the  economic  picture.  Industrial  and  transportation  facilities,  which 
  suffered  severe  damage,  have  been  partially  restored.  Oil  exports 
  remain  at  less  than  5%  of  the  previous  level.  Shortages  of  spare  parts 
  continue.  Living  standards  deteriorated  even  further  in  1993  and  1994; 
  consumer  prices  have  more  than  doubled  in  both  1993  and  1994.  The 
  UN-sponsored  economic  embargo  has  reduced  exports  and  imports  and  has 
  contributed  to  the  sharp  rise  in  prices.  The  Iraqi  government  has  been 
  unwilling  to  abide  by  UN  resolutions  so  that  the  economic  embargo  can 
  be  removed.  The  government's  policies  of  supporting  large  military  and 
  internal  security  forces  and  of  allocating  resources  to  key  supporters 
  of  the  regime  have  exacerbated  shortages.  In  brief,  per  capita  output 
  in  1993-94  is  far  below  the  1989-90  level,  but  no  precise  estimate  is 
  available. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $NA 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  NA% 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $NA 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  NA% 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $10.4  billion  (f.o.b.,  1990) 
  commodities:  crude  oil  and  refined  products,  fertilizer,  sulfur 
  partners:  US  Brazil,  Turkey,  Japan,  Netherlands,  Spain  (1990) 
 
  Imports:  $6.6  billion  (c.i.f.,  1990) 
  commodities:  manufactures,  food 
  partners:  Germany,  US  Turkey,  France,  UK  (1990) 
 
  External  debt:  $50  billion  (1989  est.),  excluding  debt  of  about  $35 
  billion  owed  to  Gulf  Arab  states 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  NA%;  manufacturing  accounts  for  10% 
  of  GNP  (1989) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  7,170,000  kW 
  production:  25.7  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,247  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  petroleum  production  and  refining,  chemicals,  textiles, 
  construction  materials,  food  processing 
 
  Agriculture:  accounted  for  11%  of  GNP  and  30%  of  labor  force  before 
  the  Gulf  war;  principal  products  -  wheat,  barley,  rice,  vegetables, 
  dates,  other  fruit,  cotton,  wool;  livestock  -  cattle,  sheep;  not 
  self-sufficient  in  food  output 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-80),  $3  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $647  million;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $3.9  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Iraqi  dinar  ID  =  1,000  fils 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Iraqi  dinars  ID  per  US$1  -  3.2  (fixed  official  rate 
  since  1982);  black-market  rate  (March  1995)  US$1  =  1200  Iraqi  dinars; 
  semi-official  rate  US$1  =  650  Iraqi  dinars 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Iraq:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,457  km 
  standard  gauge:  2,457  km  1.435-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  45,550  km 
  paved:  38,400  km 
  unpaved:  7,150  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  1,015  km  Shatt  al  Arab  is  usually  navigable  by 
  maritime  traffic  for  about  130  km  channel  has  been  dredged  to  3 
  meters  and  is  in  use  Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers  have  navigable 
  sections  for  shallow-draft  watercraft;  Shatt  al  Basrah  canal  was 
  navigable  by  shallow-draft  craft  before  closing  in  1991  because  of  the 
  Persian  Gulf  war 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  4,350  km  petroleum  products  725  km  natural  gas 
  1,360  km 
 
  Ports:  Umm  Qasr,  Khawr  az  Zubayr  and  Al  Basrah  have  limited 
  functionality 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  36  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  795,346  GRT/1,431,154  DWT 
 
  ships  by  type:  cargo  14,  oil  tanker  16,  passenger  1,  passenger-cargo 
  1,  refrigerated  cargo  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  3 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  121 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  34 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  8 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  22 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  16 
 
  Iraq:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  632,000  telephones;  reconstitution  of  damaged 
  telecommunication  facilities  began  after  the  Gulf  war;  most  damaged 
  facilities  have  been  rebuilt 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  the  network  consists  of  coaxial  cables  and  microwave  radio 
  relay  links 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean),  1 
  GORIZONT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  in  the  Intersputnik  system,  and  1  ARABSAT 
  earth  station;  coaxial  cable  and  microwave  radio  relay  to  Jordan, 
  Kuwait,  Syria,  and  Turkey;  Kuwait  line  is  probably  non-operational 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  16,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  13 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Iraq:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Republican  Guard  and  Special  Republican  Guard,  Navy, 
  Air  Force,  Air  Defense  Force,  Border  Guard  Force,  Internal  Security 
  Forces 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  4,626,610;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  2,597,687;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  229,015  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  $NA,  NA%  of  GNP 
 
 
 




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