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france


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  France 
  n  :  a  republic  in  western  Europe;  the  largest  country  wholly  in 
  Europe  [syn:  {France}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  France 
 
  France:Geography 
 
  Location:  Western  Europe,  bordering  the  Bay  of  Biscay  and  English 
  Channel,  between  Belgium  and  Spain  southeast  of  the  UK  bordering  the 
  Mediterranean  Sea,  between  Italy  and  Spain 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  547,030  sq  km 
  land  area:  545,630  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  twice  the  size  of  Colorado 
  note:  includes  Corsica  and  the  rest  of  metropolitan  France,  but 
  excludes  the  overseas  administrative  divisions 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,892.4  km  Andorra  60  km  Belgium  620  km 
  Germany  451  km  Italy  488  km  Luxembourg  73  km  Monaco  4.4  km  Spain 
  623  km  Switzerland  573  km 
 
  Coastline:  3,427  km  (mainland  2,783  km  Corsica  644  km) 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  Madagascar  claims  Bassas  da  India,  Europa 
  Island,  Glorioso  Islands,  Juan  de  Nova  Island,  and  Tromelin  Island; 
  Comoros  claims  Mayotte;  Mauritius  claims  Tromelin  Island;  Seychelles 
  claims  Tromelin  Island;  Suriname  claims  part  of  French  Guiana;  Mexico 
  claims  Clipperton  Island;  territorial  claim  in  Antarctica  (Adelie 
  Land);  Saint  Pierre  and  Miquelon  is  focus  of  maritime  boundary  dispute 
  between  Canada  and  France 
 
  Climate:  generally  cool  winters  and  mild  summers,  but  mild  winters  and 
  hot  summers  along  the  Mediterranean 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  flat  plains  or  gently  rolling  hills  in  north  and  west; 
  remainder  is  mountainous,  especially  Pyrenees  in  south,  Alps  in  east 
 
  Natural  resources:  coal,  iron  ore,  bauxite,  fish,  timber,  zinc,  potash 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  32% 
  permanent  crops:  2% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  23% 
  forest  and  woodland:  27% 
  other:  16% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  11,600  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  some  forest  damage  from  acid  rain;  air  pollution  from 
  industrial  and  vehicle  emissions;  water  pollution  from  urban  wastes, 
  agricultural  runoff 
  natural  hazards:  flooding 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85, 
  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping, 
  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution, 
  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air 
  Pollution-Sulphur  94,  Air  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds, 
  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  largest  West  European  nation;  occasional  warm  tropical  wind 
  known  as  mistral 
 
  France:People 
 
  Population:  58,109,160  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  19%  (female  5,438,447;  male  5,700,143) 
  15-64  years:  65%  (female  18,889,771;  male  19,001,536) 
  65  years  and  over:  16%  (female  5,433,276;  male  3,645,987)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.46%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  13  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.29  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.86  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  78.37  years 
  male:  74.5  years 
  female:  82.44  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.8  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Frenchman(men),  Frenchwoman(women) 
  adjective:  French 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Celtic  and  Latin  with  Teutonic,  Slavic,  North 
  African,  Indochinese,  Basque  minorities 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  90%,  Protestant  2%,  Jewish  1%,  Muslim  (North 
  African  workers)  1%,  unaffiliated  6% 
 
  Languages:  French  100%,  rapidly  declining  regional  dialects  and 
  languages  (Provencal,  Breton,  Alsatian,  Corsican,  Catalan,  Basque, 
  Flemish) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991  est.) 
  total  population:  99% 
 
  Labor  force:  24.17  million 
  by  occupation:  services  61.5%,  industry  31.3%,  agriculture  7.2%  (1987) 
 
  France:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  French  Republic 
  conventional  short  form:  France 
  local  long  form:  Republique  Francaise 
  local  short  form:  France 
 
  Digraph:  FR 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Paris 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  22  regions  (regions,  singular  -  region); 
  Alsace,  Aquitaine,  Auvergne,  Basse-Normandie,  Bourgogne,  Bretagne, 
  Centre,  Champagne-Ardenne,  Corse,  Franche-Comte,  Haute-Normandie, 
  Ile-de-France,  Languedoc-Roussillon,  Limousin,  Lorraine, 
  Midi-Pyrenees,  Nord-Pas-de-Calais,  Pays  de  la  Loire,  Picardie, 
  Poitou-Charentes,  Provence-Alpes-Cote  d'Azur,  Rhone-Alpes 
  note:  the  22  regions  are  subdivided  into  96  departments;  see  separate 
  entries  for  the  overseas  departments  (French  Guiana,  Guadeloupe, 
  Martinique,  Reunion)  and  the  territorial  collectivities  (Mayotte, 
  Saint  Pierre  and  Miquelon) 
 
  Dependent  areas:  Bassas  da  India,  Clipperton  Island,  Europa  Island, 
  French  Polynesia,  French  Southern  and  Antarctic  Lands,  Glorioso 
  Islands,  Juan  de  Nova  Island,  New  Caledonia,  Tromelin  Island,  Wallis 
  and  Futuna 
  note:  the  US  does  not  recognize  claims  to  Antarctica 
 
  Independence:  486  (unified  by  Clovis) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  Taking  of  the  Bastille,  14  July  (1789) 
 
  Constitution:  28  September  1958,  amended  concerning  election  of 
  president  in  1962,  amended  to  comply  with  provisions  of  EC  Maastricht 
  Treaty  in  1992;  amended  to  tighten  immigration  laws  1993 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  with  indigenous  concepts;  review  of 
  administrative  but  not  legislative  acts 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Francois  MITTERRAND  (since  21  May  1981); 
  election  last  held  8  May  1988  (next  to  be  held  by  May  1995);  results  - 
  Second  Ballot  Francois  MITTERRAND  54%,  Jacques  CHIRAC  46% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Edouard  BALLADUR  (since  29  March 
  1993) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president  on  the 
  suggestion  of  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  (Parlement) 
  Senate  (Senat):  elections  last  held  27  September  1992  (next  to  be  held 
  September  1995;  nine-year  term,  elected  by  thirds  every  three  years); 
  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (321  total;  296 
  metropolitan  France,  13  for  overseas  departments  and  territories,  and 
  12  for  French  nationals  abroad)  RPR  91,  UDF  142,  PS  66,  PCF  16, 
  independents  2,  other  4 
  National  Assembly  (Assemblee  Nationale):  elections  last  held  21  and  28 
  March  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA  1998);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (577  total)  RPR  247,  UDF  213,  PS  67,  PCF  24, 
  independents  26 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Constitutional  Court  (Cour  Constitutionnelle) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Rally  for  the  Republic  (RPR),  Alain 
  JUPPE,  interim  head;  Union  for  French  Democracy  (UDF,  coalition  of  PR 
  CDS,  RAD,  PSD),  Valery  Giscard  d'ESTAING;  Republican  Party  (PR), 
  Gerard  LONGUET;  Center  for  Social  Democrats  (CDS),  Francois  BAYROU; 
  Radical  (RAD),  Yves  GALLAND;  Socialist  Party  (PS),  Henri  EMMANUELLI 
  Left  Radical  Movement  (MRG),  Jean-Francois  HORY;  Communist  Party 
  (PCF),  Robert  HUE;  National  Front  (FN),  Jean-Marie  LE  PEN;  The  Greens, 
  Antoine  WAECHTER  Jean-Louis  VIDAL,  Guy  CAMBOT;  Generation  Ecology 
  (GE),  Brice  LALONDE 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Communist-controlled  labor  union 
  (Confederation  Generale  du  Travail  -  CGT)  nearly  2.4  million  members 
  (claimed);  Socialist-leaning  labor  union  (Confederation  Francaise 
  Democratique  du  Travail  or  CFDT)  about  800,000  members  (est.); 
  independent  labor  union  (Force  Ouvriere)  1  million  members  (est.); 
  independent  white-collar  union  (Confederation  Generale  des  Cadres) 
  340,000  members  (claimed);  National  Council  of  French  Employers 
  (Conseil  National  du  Patronat  Francais  -  CNPF  or  Patronat) 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BDEAC 
  BIS,  CCC,  CDB  (non-regional),  CE  CERN,  EBRD,  EC  ECA  (associate), 
  ECE,  ECLAC  EIB,  ESA,  ESCAP,  FAO,  FZ  G-  5,  G-  7,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO, 
  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO 
  MTCR,  NACC,  NATO,  NEA,  NSG,  OAS  (observer),  OECD  ONUSAL  OSCE,  PCA, 
  SPC,  UN  UN  Security  Council,  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIFIL, 
  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNMIH  UNPROFOR  UNRWA  UNTSO  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WEU, 
  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Jacques  ANDREANI 
  chancery:  4101  Reservoir  Road  NW  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  944-6000 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Boston,  Chicago,  Honolulu,  Houston,  Los 
  Angeles,  Miami,  New  Orleans,  New  York,  San  Francisco,  and  San  Juan 
  (Puerto  Rico) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Pamela  C.  HARRIMAN 
  embassy:  2  Avenue  Gabriel,  75382  Paris  Cedex  08 
  mailing  address:  Unit  21551,  Paris;  APO  AE  09777 
  telephone:  [33]  (1)  42  96  12  02,  42  61  80  75 
  FAX:  [33]  (1)  42  66  97  83 
  consulate(s)  general:  Bordeaux,  Marseille,  Strasbourg 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  vertical  bands  of  blue  (hoist  side),  white,  and  red; 
  known  as  the  French  Tricouleur  (Tricolor);  the  design  and  colors  are 
  similar  to  a  number  of  other  flags,  including  those  of  Belgium,  Chad, 
  Ireland,  Cote  d'Ivoire,  and  Luxembourg;  the  official  flag  for  all 
  French  dependent  areas 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  One  of  the  world's  most  highly  developed  economies,  France 
  has  substantial  agricultural  resources  and  a  diversified  modern 
  industrial  sector.  Large  tracts  of  fertile  land,  the  application  of 
  modern  technology,  and  subsidies  have  combined  to  make  it  the  leading 
  agricultural  producer  in  Western  Europe.  Largely  self-sufficient  in 
  agricultural  products,  France  is  a  major  exporter  of  wheat  and  dairy 
  products.  The  industrial  sector  generates  about  one-quarter  of  GDP, 
  and  the  growing  services  sector  has  become  crucial  to  the  economy. 
  Following  stagnation  and  recession  in  1991-93,  French  GDP  in  1994 
  expanded  2.4%.  Growth  in  1995  is  expected  to  be  in  the  3.0%  to  3.5% 
  range.  Persistently  high  unemployment  will  still  pose  a  major  problem 
  for  the  government.  Paris  remains  committed  to  maintaining  the 
  franc-deutsche  mark  parity,  which  has  kept  French  interest  rates  high 
  despite  France's  low  inflation.  Although  the  pace  of  economic  and 
  financial  integration  within  the  European  Union  has  slowed  down 
  integration  presumably  will  remain  a  major  force  shaping  the  fortunes 
  of  the  various  economic  sectors  over  the  next  few  years. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $1.0801  trillion 
  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $18,670  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  1.6%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  12.6%  (yearend  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $220.5  billion 
  expenditures:  $249.1  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $47 
  billion  (1993  budget) 
 
  Exports:  $249.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transportation  equipment,  chemicals, 
  foodstuffs,  agricultural  products,  iron  and  steel  products,  textiles 
  and  clothing 
  partners:  Germany  18.6%,  Italy  11.0%,  Spain  11.0%,  Belgium-Luxembourg 
  9.1%,  UK  8.8%,  Netherlands  7.9%,  US  6.4%,  Japan  2.0%,  FSU  0.7%  (1991 
  est.) 
 
  Imports:  $238.1  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil,  machinery  and  equipment,  agricultural 
  products,  chemicals,  iron  and  steel  products 
  partners:  Germany  17.8%,  Italy  10.9%,  US  9.5%,  Netherlands  8.9%,  Spain 
  8.8%,  Belgium-Luxembourg  8.5%,  UK  7.5%,  Japan  4.1%,  FSU  1.3%  (1991 
  est.) 
 
  External  debt:  $300  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  2.6%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  105,250,000  kW 
  production:  447  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  6,149  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  steel,  machinery,  chemicals,  automobiles,  metallurgy, 
  aircraft,  electronics,  mining,  textiles,  food  processing,  tourism 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  4%  of  GDP  (including  fishing  and  forestry); 
  one  of  the  world's  top  five  wheat  producers;  other  principal  products 
  -  beef,  dairy  products,  cereals,  sugar  beets,  potatoes,  wine  grapes; 
  self-sufficient  for  most  temperate-zone  foods;  shortages  include  fats 
  and  oils  and  tropical  produce,  but  overall  net  exporter  of  farm 
  products;  fish  catch  of  850,000  metric  tons  ranks  among  world's  top  20 
  countries  and  is  all  used  domestically 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $75.1  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  French  franc  F  =  100  centimes 
 
  Exchange  rates:  French  francs  F  per  US$1  -  5.9243  (January  1995), 
  5.5520  (1994),  5.6632  (1993),  5.2938  (1992),  5.6421  (1991),  5.4453 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  France:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  34,074  km 
  standard  gauge:  33,975  km  1.435-m  gauge  (5,850  km  electrified;  12,132 
  km  double  or  multiple  track) 
  other:  99  km  various  gauges  including  1.000-m  (privately  owned  and 
  operated)  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  1,511,200  km 
  paved:  811,200  km  (including  7,700  km  of  controlled  access  divided 
  highway) 
  unpaved:  700,000  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  14,932  km  6,969  km  heavily  traveled 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  3,059  km  petroleum  products  4,487  km  natural 
  gas  24,746  km 
 
  Ports:  Bordeaux,  Boulogne  Cherbourg  Dijon,  Dunkerque,  La  Pallice,  Le 
  Havre,  Lyon,  Marseille,  Mullhouse  Nantes  Paris,  Rouen,  Saint 
  Nazaire  Saint  Malo,  Strasbourg 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  78  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  2,186,183  GRT/3,323,068 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  6,  cargo  7,  chemical  tanker  6,  container  15, 
  liquefied  gas  tanker  4,  oil  tanker  21,  passenger  1,  roll-on/roll-off 
  cargo  11,  short-sea  passenger  5,  specialized  tanker  2 
  note:  France  also  maintains  a  captive  register  for  French-owned  ships 
  in  the  Kerguelen  Islands  (French  Southern  and  Antarctic  Lands)  and 
  French  Polynesia 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  476 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  29 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  96 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  74 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  188 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  74 
 
  France:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  39,200,000  telephones;  highly  developed;  extensive 
  cable  and  microwave  radio  relay  networks;  large-scale  introduction  of 
  optical-fiber  systems;  satellite  systems  for  domestic  traffic 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay,  optical  fiber  cable,  and  domestic 
  satellites 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  earth  stations  (with  total  of  5  antennas  -  2 
  Indian  Ocean  and  3  for  Atlantic  Ocean);  HF  radio  communications  with 
  more  than  20  countries;  INMARSAT  service;  EUTELSAT  TV  service 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  41,  FM  800  (mostly  repeaters),  shortwave  0 
  radios:  48  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  846  (mostly  repeaters) 
  televisions:  36  million 
 
  France:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy  (includes  Naval  Air),  Air  Force  and  Air  Defense, 
  National  Gendarmerie 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  14,740,155;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  12,258,691;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  378,489  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $47.1  billion,  3.1% 
  of  GDP  (1995) 
 
 
 




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