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india

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india


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  India  \In"di*a\,  n.  [See  {Indian}.] 
  A  country  in  Southern  Asia;  the  two  peninsulas  of  Hither  and 
  Farther  India;  in  a  restricted  sense  Hither  India,  or 
  Hindostan. 
 
  {India  ink},  a  nearly  black  pigment  brought  chiefly  from 
  China,  used  for  water  colors.  It  is  in  rolls,  or  in 
  square,  and  consists  of  lampblack  or  ivory  black  and 
  animal  glue.  Called  also  {China  ink}.  The  true  India  ink 
  is  sepia.  See  {Sepia}. 
 
  {India  matting},  floor  matting  made  in  China,  India,  etc., 
  from  grass  and  reeds;  --  also  called  {Canton,  or  China, 
  matting}. 
 
  {India  paper},  a  variety  of  Chinese  paper,  of  smooth  but  not 
  glossy  surface,  used  for  printing  from  engravings, 
  woodcuts,  etc 
 
  {India  proof}  (Engraving),  a  proof  impression  from  an 
  engraved  plate,  taken  on  India  paper. 
 
  {India  rubber}.  See  {Caoutchouc}. 
 
  {India-rubber  tree}  (Bot.),  any  tree  yielding  caoutchouc,  but 
  especially  the  East  Indian  {Ficus  elastica},  often 
  cultivated  for  its  large  shining,  elliptical  leaves. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  India 
  n  :  a  republic  in  S  Asia;  2nd  most  populous  country  in  the  world 
  [syn:  {India},  {Bharat}] 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  India 
  occurs  only  in  Esther  1:1  and  8:9,  where  the  extent  of  the 
  dominion  of  the  Persian  king  is  described.  The  country  so 
  designated  here  is  not  the  peninsula  of  Hindustan,  but  the 
  country  surrounding  the  Indus,  the  Punjab.  The  people  and  the 
  products  of  India  were  well  known  to  the  Jews,  who  seem  to  have 
  carried  on  an  active  trade  with  that  country  (Ezek.  27:15,  24). 
 
 
  From  Hitchcock's  Bible  Names  Dictionary  (late  1800's)  [hitchcock]: 
 
  India,  praise;  law 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  India 
 
  India:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Asia,  bordering  the  Arabian  Sea  and  the  Bay  of 
  Bengal,  between  Bangladesh  and  Pakistan 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  3,287,590  km2 
  land  area:  2,973,190  km2 
  comparative  area:  slightly  more  than  one-third  the  size  of  the  US 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  14,103  km  Bangladesh  4,053  km  Bhutan  605  km 
  Burma  1,463  km  China  3,380  km  Nepal  1,690  km  Pakistan  2,912  km 
 
  Coastline:  7,000  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  boundaries  with  Bangladesh  and  China;  status 
  of  Kashmir  with  Pakistan;  water-sharing  problems  with  downstream 
  riparians,  Bangladesh  over  the  Ganges  and  Pakistan  over  the  Indus 
 
  Climate:  varies  from  tropical  monsoon  in  south  to  temperate  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  upland  plain  (Deccan  Plateau)  in  south,  flat  to  rolling  plain 
  along  the  Ganges,  deserts  in  west,  Himalayas  in  north 
 
  Natural  resources:  coal  (fourth-largest  reserves  in  the  world),  iron 
  ore,  manganese,  mica,  bauxite,  titanium  ore,  chromite,  natural  gas, 
  diamonds,  petroleum,  limestone 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  55% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  4% 
  forest  and  woodland:  23% 
  other:  17% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  430,390  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  overgrazing 
  desertification  air  pollution  from  industrial  effluents  and  vehicle 
  emissions;  water  pollution  from  raw  sewage  and  runoff  of  agricultural 
  pesticides;  tap  water  is  not  potable  throughout  the  country;  huge  and 
  rapidly  growing  population  is  overstraining  natural  resources 
  natural  hazards:  droughts,  flash  floods,  severe  thunderstorms  common; 
  earthquakes 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship 
  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber,  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of 
  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  dominates  South  Asian  subcontinent;  near  important  Indian  Ocean 
  trade  routes 
 
  India:People 
 
  Population:  936,545,814  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  35%  (female  159,921,309;  male  168,812,255) 
  15-64  years:  61%  (female  274,105,407;  male  296,145,798) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  18,870,762;  male  18,690,283)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.77%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  27.78  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  10.07  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  76.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  59.04  years 
  male:  58.5  years 
  female:  59.61  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.4  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Indian(s) 
  adjective:  Indian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Indo-Aryan  72%,  Dravidian  25%,  Mongoloid  and  other 
  3% 
 
  Religions:  Hindu  80%,  Muslim  14%,  Christian  2.4%,  Sikh  2%,  Buddhist 
  0.7%,  Jains  0.5%,  other  0.4% 
 
  Languages:  English  enjoys  associate  status  but  is  the  most  important 
  language  for  national,  political,  and  commercial  communication,  Hindi 
  the  national  language  and  primary  tongue  of  30%  of  the  people,  Bengali 
  (official),  Telugu  (official),  Marathi  (official),  Tamil  (official), 
  Urdu  (official),  Gujarati  (official),  Malayalam  (official),  Kannada 
  (official),  Oriya  (official),  Punjabi  (official),  Assamese  (official), 
  Kashmiri  (official),  Sindhi  (official),  Sanskrit  (official), 
  Hindustani  a  popular  variant  of  Hindu/Urdu,  is  spoken  widely 
  throughout  northern  India 
  note:  24  languages  each  spoken  by  a  million  or  more  persons;  numerous 
  other  languages  and  dialects,  for  the  most  part  mutually 
  unintelligible 
 
  Literacy:  age  7  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991) 
  total  population:  52% 
  male:  64% 
  female:  39% 
 
  Labor  force:  314.751  million  (1990) 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  65%  (1993  est.) 
 
  India:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  India 
  conventional  short  form:  India 
 
  Digraph:  IN 
 
  Type:  federal  republic 
 
  Capital:  New  Delhi 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  25  states  and  7  union  territories*;  Andaman 
  and  Nicobar  Islands*,  Andhra  Pradesh  Arunachal  Pradesh  Assam,  Bihar, 
  Chandigarh*,  Dadra  and  Nagar  Haveli*,  Daman  and  Diu*,  Delhi*,  Goa, 
  Gujarat,  Haryana  Himachal  Pradesh  Jammu  and  Kashmir,  Karnataka 
  Kerala,  Lakshadweep*,  Madhya  Pradesh  Maharashtra,  Manipur,  Meghalaya 
  Mizoram  Nagaland  Orissa,  Pondicherry*,  Punjab,  Rajasthan  Sikkim, 
  Tamil  Nadu,  Tripura  Uttar  Pradesh  West  Bengal 
 
  Independence:  15  August  1947  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Anniversary  of  the  Proclamation  of  the  Republic,  26 
  January  (1950) 
 
  Constitution:  26  January  1950 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law;  limited  judicial  review  of 
  legislative  acts  accepts  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with 
  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Shankar  Dayal  SHARMA  (since  25  July  1992); 
  Vice  President  Kicheril  Raman  NARAYANAN  (since  21  August  1992) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  P.  V.  Narasimha  RAO  (since  21  June 
  1991) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president  on 
  recommendation  of  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  Sansad 
  Council  of  States  (Rajya  Sabha):  body  consisting  of  not  more  than  250 
  members,  up  to  12  appointed  by  the  president,  the  remainder  chosen  by 
  the  elected  members  of  the  state  and  territorial  assemblies 
  People's  Assembly  (Lok  Sabha):  elections  last  held  21  May  12  and  15 
  June  1991  (next  to  be  held  by  1996);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (545  total,  543  elected,  2  appointed)  Congress  I 
  Party  245,  BJP  119,  Janata  Dal  Party  39,  Janata  Dal  (Ajit  Singh)  20, 
  CPI/M  35,  CPI  14,  Telugu  Desam  13,  AIADMK  11,  Samajwadi  Janata  Party 
  5,  Shiv  Sena  4,  RSP  4,  BSP  1,  Congress  S  Party  1,  other  23,  vacant 
  9;  note  -  the  distribution  of  seats  as  of  18  January  1995  is  as 
  follows:  Congress  I  Party  260,  BJP  117,  CPI/M  36,  Janata  Dal  Party 
  24,  Samta  Party  14,  CPI  14,  AIADMK  12,  Janata  Dal  (Ajit)  7,  Telugu 
  Desam  7,  RSP  4,  Janata  Dal  (Ex-Ajit)  3,  Samajwadi  Party  3,  BSP  3,  AIFB 
  3,  Shiv  Sena  2,  Congress  S  Party  1,  Kerala  Congress  (Mani  faction) 
  1,  Bihar  Peoples  Party  1,  India  National  League  1,  other  14,  vacant  16 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Congress  I  Party,  P.  V.  Narasimha 
  RAO,  president;  Bharatiya  Janata  Party  (BJP),  L.K.  ADVANI  Janata  Dal 
  Party,  S.R.  BOMMAI  Janata  Dal  (Ajit),  Ajit  SINGH;  Janata  Dal 
  (Ex-Ajit),  leader  NA  Communist  Party  of  India/Marxist  (CPI/M), 
  Harkishan  Singh  SURJEET  Communist  Party  of  India  (CPI),  Indrajit 
  GUPTA;  Telugu  Desam  (a  regional  party  in  Andhra  Pradesh),  N.  T.  Rama 
  RAO;  All-India  Anna  Dravida  Munnetra  Kazagham  (AIADMK;  a  regional 
  party  in  Tamil  Nadu),  Jayaram  JAYALALITHA  Samajwadi  Party  (SP), 
  Mulayam  Singh  YADAV  (President),  Om  Prakash  CHAUTALA  Devi  LAL;  Shiv 
  Sena,  Bal  THACKERAY;  Revolutionary  Socialist  Party  (RSP),  Tridip 
  CHOWDHURY  Bahujan  Samaj  Party  (BSP),  Kanshi  RAM;  Congress  S  Party, 
  leader  NA  Communist  Party  of  India/Marxist-Leninist  (CPI/ML),  Vinod 
  MISHRA;  Dravida  Munnetra  Kazagham  (a  regional  party  in  Tamil  Nadu),  M. 
  KARUNANIDHI  Akali  Dal  factions  representing  Sikh  religious  community 
  in  the  Punjab;  National  Conference  (NC;  a  regional  party  in  Jammu  and 
  Kashmir),  Farooq  ABDULLAH  Bihar  Peoples  Party,  Lovely  ANAND;  Samta 
  Party  (formerly  Janata  Dal  members),  Natish  KUMAR  Indian  National 
  League,  Suliaman  SAIT;  Kerala  Congress  (Mani  faction),  K.M.  MANI;  All 
  India  Forward  Bloc  (AIFB),  Prem  Dutta  PALIWAL  (Chairman),  Chitta  BASU 
  (General  Secretary) 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  various  separatist  groups  seeking 
  greater  communal  and/or  regional  autonomy;  numerous  religious  or 
  militant/chauvinistic  organizations,  including  Adam  Sena,  Ananda  Marg, 
  Vishwa  Hindu  Parishad  and  Rashtriya  Swayamsevak  Sangh 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  C,  CCC,  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-  6, 
  G-15,  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA, 
  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC, 
  IOM  (observer),  ISO,  ITU,  NAM,  OAS  (observer),  PCA,  SAARC  UN  UNAVEM 
  II  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNOMIL  UNOMOZ  UNOSOM 
  UNU,  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Siddhartha  Shankar  RAY 
  chancery:  2107  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-7000 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  New  York,  and  San  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Frank  G.  WISNER 
  embassy:  Shanti  Path,  Chanakyapuri  110021,  New  Delhi 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [91]  (11)  600651 
  FAX:  [91]  (11)  6872028 
  consulate(s)  general:  Bombay,  Calcutta,  Madras 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  orange  (top),  white,  and  green 
  with  a  blue  chakra  (24-spoked  wheel)  centered  in  the  white  band; 
  similar  to  the  flag  of  Niger,  which  has  a  small  orange  disk  centered 
  in  the  white  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  India's  economy  is  a  mixture  of  traditional  village  farming, 
  modern  agriculture,  handicrafts,  a  wide  range  of  modern  industries, 
  and  a  multitude  of  support  services.  Faster  economic  growth  in  the 
  1980s  permitted  a  significant  increase  in  real  per  capita  private 
  consumption.  A  large  share  of  the  population,  perhaps  as  much  as  40%, 
  remains  too  poor  to  afford  an  adequate  diet.  Financial  strains  in  1990 
  and  1991  prompted  government  austerity  measures  that  slowed  industrial 
  growth  but  permitted  India  to  meet  its  international  payment 
  obligations  without  rescheduling  its  debt.  Production,  trade  and 
  investment  reforms  since  1991  have  provided  new  opportunities  for 
  Indian  businessmen  and  an  estimated  100  million  to  200  million  middle 
  class  consumers.  New  Delhi  has  always  paid  its  foreign  debts  on 
  schedule  and  has  stimulated  exports,  attracted  foreign  investment,  and 
  revived  confidence  in  India's  economic  prospects.  Foreign  exchange 
  reserves,  precariously  low  three  years  ago,  now  total  more  than  $19 
  billion.  Positive  factors  for  the  remainder  of  the  1990s  are  India's 
  strong  entrepreneurial  class  and  the  central  government's  recognition 
  of  the  continuing  need  for  market-oriented  approaches  to  economic 
  development,  for  example  in  upgrading  the  wholly  inadequate 
  communications  facilities.  Negative  factors  include  the  desperate 
  poverty  of  hundreds  of  millions  of  Indians  and  the  impact  of  the  huge 
  and  expanding  population  on  an  already  overloaded  environment. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $1.2539  trillion 
  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,360  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $30.85  billion 
  expenditures:  $48.35  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $10.5 
  billion  (FY93/94) 
 
  Exports:  $24.4  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  clothing,  gems  and  jewelry,  engineering  goods,  chemicals, 
  leather  manufactures,  cotton  yarn,  and  fabric 
  partners:  US  Japan,  Germany,  UK  Hong  Kong 
 
  Imports:  $25.5  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil  and  petroleum  products,  machinery,  gems, 
  fertilizer,  chemicals 
  partners:  US  Germany,  Saudi  Arabia,  UK  Belgium,  Japan 
 
  External  debt:  $89.2  billion  (November  1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7%  (1994  est.);  accounts  for  28%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  81,200,000  kW 
  production:  314  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  324  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  chemicals,  food  processing,  steel, 
  transportation  equipment,  cement,  mining,  petroleum,  machinery 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  34%  of  GDP;  principal  crops  -  rice,  wheat, 
  oilseeds,  cotton,  jute,  tea,  sugarcane,  potatoes;  livestock  -  cattle, 
  buffaloes,  sheep,  goats,  poultry;  fish  catch  of  about  3  million  metric 
  tons  ranks  India  among  the  world's  top  10  fishing  nations 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  licit  producer  of  opium  poppy  for  the  pharmaceutical 
  trade  but  an  undetermined  quantity  of  opium  is  diverted  to  illicit 
  international  drug  markets;  major  transit  country  for  illicit 
  narcotics  produced  in  neighboring  countries;  illicit  producer  of 
  hashish  and  methaqualone;  produced  82  metric  tons  of  illicit  opium  in 
  1994 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $4.4  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1980-89),  $31.7  billion;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $315  million; 
  USSR  (1970-89),  $11.6  billion;  Eastern  Europe  (1970-89),  $105  million 
 
  Currency:  1  Indian  rupee  Re  =  100  paise 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Indian  rupees  Rs  per  US$1  -  31.374  (January  1995), 
  31.374  (1994),  30.493  (1993),  25.918  (1992),  22.742  (1991),  17.504 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  India:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  62,211  km  (6,500  km  electrified;  12,617  km  double  track) 
  broad  gauge:  34,544  km  1.676-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  23,599  km  1.000-m  gauge;  4,068  km  0.762-m  and  0.610-m 
  gauge  (1994  est.) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  1.97  million  km 
  paved:  960,000  km 
  unpaved:  gravel,  crushed  stone,  earth  1.01  million  km  (1989) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  16,180  km  3,631  km  navigable  by  large  vessels 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  3,497  km  petroleum  products  1,703  km  natural 
  gas  902  km  (1989) 
 
  Ports:  Bombay,  Calcutta,  Cochin,  Haldia,  Kandla  Madras,  Mormugao  New 
  Mangalore  Pondicherry  Port  Blair  (Andaman  Islands),  Tuticorin 
  Vishakhapatnam 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  299  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  6,288,902  GRT/10,454,178 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  114,  cargo  78,  chemical  tanker  9,  combination  bulk 
  2,  combination  ore/oil  5,  container  10,  liquefied  gas  tanker  6,  oil 
  tanker  68,  passenger-cargo  5,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1,  short-sea 
  passenger  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  352 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  11 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  48 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  85 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  72 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  81 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  46 
 
  India:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  5  telephones/1,000  persons;  domestic 
  telephone  system  is  poor;  long-distance  telephoning  has  been  improved 
  by  a  domestic  satellite  system  which  also  carries  TV 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  3  INTELSAT  (Indian  Ocean)  earth  stations  and  submarine 
  cables  to  Malaysia  and  the  United  Arab  Emirates 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  96,  FM  4,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  274  (government  controlled) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  India:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  various  security  or  paramilitary 
  forces  (includes  Border  Security  Force,  Assam  Rifles,  and  Coast  Guard) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  253,134,487;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  148,814,104;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  9,461,907  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $7.8  billion,  2.8%  of 
  GDP  (FY94/95) 
 
 
 




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