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pakistanmore about pakistan

pakistan


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Pakistan 
  n  :  a  Moslem  republic  in  S  Asia;  formerly  part  of  India  [syn:  {Pakistan}, 
  {West  Pakistan}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Pakistan 
 
  Pakistan:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Asia,  bordering  the  Arabian  Sea,  between  India  and 
  Iran 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  803,940  sq  km 
  land  area:  778,720  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  twice  the  size  of  California 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  6,774  km  Afghanistan  2,430  km  China  523  km 
  India  2,912  km  Iran  909  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,046  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  status  of  Kashmir  with  India;  border  question 
  with  Afghanistan  (Durand  Line);  water-sharing  problems  (Wular  Barrage) 
  over  the  Indus  with  upstream  riparian  India 
 
  Climate:  mostly  hot,  dry  desert;  temperate  in  northwest;  arctic  in 
  north 
 
  Terrain:  flat  Indus  plain  in  east;  mountains  in  north  and  northwest; 
  Balochistan  plateau  in  west 
 
  Natural  resources:  land,  extensive  natural  gas  reserves,  limited 
  petroleum,  poor  quality  coal,  iron  ore,  copper,  salt,  limestone 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  23% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  6% 
  forest  and  woodland:  4% 
  other:  67%  (1993) 
 
  Irrigated  land:  170,000  sq  km  (1992) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  water  pollution  from  raw  sewage,  industrial  wastes, 
  and  agricultural  runoff;  limited  natural  fresh  water  resources;  a 
  majority  of  the  population  does  not  have  access  to  potable  water; 
  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  frequent  earthquakes,  occasionally  severe  especially 
  in  north  and  west;  flooding  along  the  Indus  after  heavy  rains  (July 
  and  August) 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine 
  Life  Conservation 
 
  Note:  controls  Khyber  Pass  and  Bolan  Pass,  traditional  invasion  routes 
  between  Central  Asia  and  the  Indian  Subcontinent 
 
  Pakistan:People 
 
  Population:  131,541,920  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  44%  (female  28,033,354;  male  29,777,818) 
  15-64  years:  52%  (female  33,456,410;  male  35,109,482) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  2,556,846;  male  2,608,010)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.28%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  41.8  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  12.07  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -16.93  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  99.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  57.86  years 
  male:  57.18  years 
  female:  58.56  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.35  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Pakistani(s) 
  adjective:  Pakistani 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Punjabi,  Sindhi,  Pashtun  (Pathan),  Baloch,  Muhajir 
  (immigrants  from  India  and  their  descendents) 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  97%  (Sunni  77%,  Shi'a  20%),  Christian,  Hindu,  and 
  other  3% 
 
  Languages:  Urdu  (official),  English  (official;  lingua  franca  of 
  Pakistani  elite  and  most  government  ministries),  Punjabi  64%,  Sindhi 
  12%,  Pashtu  8%,  Urdu  7%,  Balochi  and  other  9% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  35% 
  male:  47% 
  female:  21% 
 
  Labor  force:  36  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  46%,  mining  and  manufacturing  18%,  services 
  17%,  other  19% 
  note:  extensive  export  of  labor 
 
  Pakistan:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Islamic  Republic  of  Pakistan 
  conventional  short  form:  Pakistan 
  former:  West  Pakistan 
 
  Digraph:  PK 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Islamabad 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  4  provinces,  1  territory*,  and  1  capital 
  territory**;  Balochistan  Federally  Administered  Tribal  Areas*, 
  Islamabad  Capital  Territory**,  North-West  Frontier,  Punjab,  Sindh 
  note:  the  Pakistani-administered  portion  of  the  disputed  Jammu  and 
  Kashmir  region  includes  Azad  Kashmir  and  the  Northern  Areas 
 
  Independence:  14  August  1947  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Pakistan  Day  23  March  (1956)  (proclamation  of  the 
  republic) 
 
  Constitution:  10  April  1973,  suspended  5  July  1977,  restored  with 
  amendments  30  December  1985 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law  with  provisions  to 
  accommodate  Pakistan's  stature  as  an  Islamic  state;  accepts  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  21  years  of  age;  universal;  separate  electorates  and 
  reserved  parliamentary  seats  for  non-Muslims 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Sardar  Farooq  LEGHARI  election  last  held  13 
  November  1993  (next  to  be  held  no  later  than  14  October  1998);  results 
  -  LEGHARI  was  elected  by  Parliament  and  the  four  provincial  assemblies 
 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Benazir  BHUTTO 
  cabinet:  Cabinet 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  (Majlis-e-Shoora) 
  Senate:  elections  last  held  NA  March  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA  March 
  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (87  total)  PPP 
  22,  PML/N  17;  Tribal  Area  Representatives  (nonparty)  8,  ANP  6,  PML/J 
  5,  JWP  5,  MQM/A  5,  JUI/F  2,  PKMAP  2,  JI  2,  NPP  2,  BNM/H  1,  BNM/M  1, 
  JUP/NI  1,  JUP/NO  1,  JAH  1,  JUI/S  1,  PML/F  1,  PNP  1,  independents  2, 
  vacant  1 
  National  Assembly:  elections  last  held  6  October  1993  (next  to  be  held 
  by  October  1998);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (217 
  total)  PPP  92,  PML/N  75,  PML/J  6,  IJM-Islamic  Democratic  Front  4,  ANP 
  3,  PKMAP  4,  PIF  3,  JWP  2,  MDM  2,  BNM/H  1,  BNM/M  1,  NDA  1,  NPP  1,  PKQP 
  1,  Religious  minorities  10  reserved  seats,  independents  9,  results 
  pending  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court,  Federal  Islamic  (Shari'at)  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  government:  Pakistan  People's  Party  (PPP),  Benazir  BHUTTO;  Pakistan 
  Muslim  League,  Junejo  faction  (PML/J),  Hamid  Nasir  CHATTHA  National 
  People's  Party  (NPP),  Ghulam  Mustapha  JATOI  Pakhtun  Khwa  Milli  Awami 
  Party  (PKMAP),  Mahmood  Khan  ACHAKZAI  Balochistan  National  Movement, 
  Hayee  Group  (BNM/H),  Dr  HAYEE  Baluch;  National  Democratic  Alliance 
  (NDA),  Maulana  Kausar  NIAZI;  Pakhtun  Quami  Party  (PKQP),  Mohammed 
  AFZAL  Khan;  Jamhoori  Watan  Party  (JWP),  Akbar  Khan  BUGTI 
  opposition:  Pakistan  Muslim  League,  Nawaz  Sharif  faction  (PML/N), 
  Nawaz  SHARIF;  Awami  National  Party  (ANP),  Khan  Abdul  WALI  KHAN; 
  Pakistan  Islamic  Front  (PIF),  Qazi  Hussain  AHMED  Balochistan  National 
  Movement,  Mengal  Group  (BNM/M),  Sardar  Akhtar  MENGAL;  Mohajir  Quami 
  Movement,  Altaf  faction  (MQM/A),  Altaf  HUSSAIN  Jamaat-i-Islami  (JI), 
  Qazi  Hussain  AHMED  Jamiat-al-Hadith  (JAH) 
  frequently  shifting:  Mutaheda  Deeni  Mahaz  (MDM),  Maulana  Sami-ul-HAQ, 
  the  MDM  includes  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Pakistan,  Niazi  faction  (JUP/NI)  and 
  Anjuman  Sepah-i-Sahaba  Pakistan  (ASSP);  Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz 
  (IJM-Islamic  Democratic  Party),  the  IJM  includes  Jamiat 
  Ulema-i-Islami,  Fazlur  Rehman  group  (JUI/F);  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Pakistan, 
  Noorani  faction  (JUP/NO);  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Islam,  Sami-ul-Haq  faction 
  (JUI/S);  Pakistan  Muslim  League,  Functional  Group  (PML/F);  Pakistan 
  National  Party  (PNP) 
  note:  political  alliances  in  Pakistan  can  shift  frequently 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  military  remains  important 
  political  force;  ulema  (clergy),  landowners,  industrialists,  and  small 
  merchants  also  influential 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  C,  CCC,  CP  ECO,  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO, 
  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO 
  NAM,  OAS  (observer),  OIC,  PCA,  SAARC  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNOMIL  UNOSOM  UNPROFOR  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO 
  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Maleeha  LODHI 
  chancery:  2315  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-6200 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  387-0484 
  consulate(s)  general:  Los  Angeles  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  John  C.  MONJO 
  embassy:  Diplomatic  Enclave,  Ramna  5,  Islamabad 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  1048,  PSC  1212,  Box  2000,  Unit  6220, 
  Islamabad;  APO  AE  09812-2000 
  telephone:  [92]  (51)  826161  through  826179 
  FAX:  [92]  (51)  214222 
  consulate(s)  general:  Karachi,  Lahore 
  consulate(s):  Peshawar 
 
  Flag:  green  with  a  vertical  white  band  (symbolizing  the  role  of 
  religious  minorities)  on  the  hoist  side  a  large  white  crescent  and 
  star  are  centered  in  the  green  field;  the  crescent,  star,  and  color 
  green  are  traditional  symbols  of  Islam 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  Pakistani  economy  has  made  progress  in  several  key  areas 
  since  Benazir  BHUTTO  became  Prime  Minister  in  October  1993.  She  has 
  been  under  pressure  from  international  donors  and  the  IMF  -  which  gave 
  Pakistan  a  $1.3  billion  structural  adjustment  credit  in  February  1994 
  -  to  continue  the  economic  reforms  and  austerity  measures  begun  by  her 
  predecessor,  caretaker  Prime  Minister  Moeen  QURESHI  (July-October 
  1993).  Foreign  exchange  reserves  climbed  to  more  than  $3  billion  in 
  1994,  and  the  budget  deficit  was  substantially  reduced.  Real  GDP 
  growth  was  4%  in  FY93/94,  up  from  2.3%  in  FY92/93.  Foreign  direct  and 
  portfolio  investment  also  have  increased.  Privatization  of  large 
  public  sector  utilities  began  in  1994  with  the  sale  of  12%  of  the 
  Pakistan  Telecommunications  Corporation  (PTC)  and  the  Water  and  Power 
  Development  Authority  (WAPDA);  the  sale  of  state-owned  banks  and  other 
  large  units  are  planned  for  1995.  Still  the  government  must  cope  with 
  long-standing  economic  vulnerabilities  -  high  levels  of  debt  service 
  and  defense  spending,  a  small  tax  base,  a  huge  population,  and 
  dependence  on  cotton-based  exports  -  which  hamper  its  ability  to 
  create  a  stable  economic  environment.  In  addition,  Pakistan's 
  infrastructure  is  inadequate  and  deteriorating,  low  levels  of  literacy 
  constrain  industrial  growth,  and  increasing  sectarian,  ethnic,  and 
  tribal  violence  disrupt  production. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $248.5  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,930  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  12%  (FY93/94) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  10%  (FY90/91  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $10.5  billion 
  expenditures:  $11.2  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $3.1 
  billion  (FY93/94) 
 
  Exports:  $6.7  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  cotton,  textiles,  clothing,  rice,  leather,  carpets 
  partners:  US  Japan,  Hong  Kong,  Germany,  UK  UAE,  France 
 
  Imports:  $9.5  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  petroleum,  petroleum  products,  machinery,  transportation 
  equipment,  vegetable  oils,  animal  fats,  chemicals 
  partners:  Japan,  US  Germany,  UK  Saudi  Arabia,  Malaysia,  South  Korea 
 
  External  debt:  $24  billion  (1993  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  5.6%  (FY93/94);  accounts  for  18%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  10,800,000  kW  (1994) 
  production:  52.4  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  389  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  textiles,  food  processing,  beverages,  construction 
  materials,  clothing,  paper  products,  shrimp 
 
  Agriculture:  24%  of  GDP;  world's  largest  contiguous  irrigation  system; 
  major  crops  -  cotton,  wheat,  rice,  sugarcane,  fruits,  vegetables; 
  livestock  products  -  milk,  beef,  mutton,  eggs 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  major  illicit  producer  of  opium  and  hashish  for  the 
  international  drug  trade  remains  world's  third  largest  opium  producer 
  (160  metric  tons  in  1994);  major  center  for  processing  Afghan  heroin 
  and  key  transit  area  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin  moving  to  Western 
  market 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  $2.5  billion  (FY91/92);  $2.5  billion  (FY92/93);  $2.5 
  billion  (FY93/94);  no  US  commitments,  includes  bi-  and  multilateral 
  aid 
 
  Currency:  1  Pakistani  rupee  (PRe)  =  100  paisa 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Pakistani  rupees  (PRs)  per  US$1  -  30.860  (January 
  1995),  30.570  (1994),  28.107  (1993),  25.083  (1992),  23.801  (1991), 
  21.707  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
 
  Pakistan:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  8,773  km 
  broad  gauge:  7,718  km  1.676-m  gauge  (286  km  electrified;  1,037  double 
  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  445  km  1.000-m  gauge;  610  km  less  than  1.000-m  gauge 
  (1985) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  177,410  km 
  paved:  94,027  km 
  unpaved:  83,383  km  (1991  est.) 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  250  km  petroleum  products  885  km  natural  gas 
  4,044  km  (1987) 
 
  Ports:  Gwadar,  Karachi,  Ormaro  (under  construction),  Port  Muhammad  bin 
  Qasim 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  30  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  352,189  GRT/532,782  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  cargo  25,  oil  tanker  1,  passenger-cargo  3 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  119 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  33 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  14 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  24 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  8 
 
  Pakistan:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  about  7  telephones/1,000  persons;  the 
  domestic  telephone  system  is  poor,  adequate  only  for  government  and 
  business  use  the  system  for  international  traffic  is  better 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  3  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  2  Indian  Ocean)  earth 
  stations;  microwave  radio  relay 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  19,  FM  8,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  29 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Pakistan:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Civil  Armed  Forces,  National  Guard, 
  paramilitary/security  forces 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  30,219,551;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  18,544,008;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  1,429,719  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $3.2  billion,  5.6%  of 
  GDP  (FY94/95) 
 
 
 




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