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pakistanmore about pakistan


  2  definitions  found 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
  n  :  a  Moslem  republic  in  S  Asia;  formerly  part  of  India  [syn:  {Pakistan}, 
  {West  Pakistan}] 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
  Location:  Southern  Asia,  bordering  the  Arabian  Sea,  between  India  and 
  Map  references:  Asia 
  total  area:  803,940  sq  km 
  land  area:  778,720  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  twice  the  size  of  California 
  Land  boundaries:  total  6,774  km  Afghanistan  2,430  km  China  523  km 
  India  2,912  km  Iran  909  km 
  Coastline:  1,046  km 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
  International  disputes:  status  of  Kashmir  with  India;  border  question 
  with  Afghanistan  (Durand  Line);  water-sharing  problems  (Wular  Barrage) 
  over  the  Indus  with  upstream  riparian  India 
  Climate:  mostly  hot,  dry  desert;  temperate  in  northwest;  arctic  in 
  Terrain:  flat  Indus  plain  in  east;  mountains  in  north  and  northwest; 
  Balochistan  plateau  in  west 
  Natural  resources:  land,  extensive  natural  gas  reserves,  limited 
  petroleum,  poor  quality  coal,  iron  ore,  copper,  salt,  limestone 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  23% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  6% 
  forest  and  woodland:  4% 
  other:  67%  (1993) 
  Irrigated  land:  170,000  sq  km  (1992) 
  current  issues:  water  pollution  from  raw  sewage,  industrial  wastes, 
  and  agricultural  runoff;  limited  natural  fresh  water  resources;  a 
  majority  of  the  population  does  not  have  access  to  potable  water; 
  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  frequent  earthquakes,  occasionally  severe  especially 
  in  north  and  west;  flooding  along  the  Indus  after  heavy  rains  (July 
  and  August) 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine 
  Life  Conservation 
  Note:  controls  Khyber  Pass  and  Bolan  Pass,  traditional  invasion  routes 
  between  Central  Asia  and  the  Indian  Subcontinent 
  Population:  131,541,920  (July  1995  est.) 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  44%  (female  28,033,354;  male  29,777,818) 
  15-64  years:  52%  (female  33,456,410;  male  35,109,482) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  2,556,846;  male  2,608,010)  (July  1995 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.28%  (1995  est.) 
  Birth  rate:  41.8  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Death  rate:  12.07  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Net  migration  rate:  -16.93  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  99.5  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  57.86  years 
  male:  57.18  years 
  female:  58.56  years  (1995  est.) 
  Total  fertility  rate:  6.35  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
  noun:  Pakistani(s) 
  adjective:  Pakistani 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Punjabi,  Sindhi,  Pashtun  (Pathan),  Baloch,  Muhajir 
  (immigrants  from  India  and  their  descendents) 
  Religions:  Muslim  97%  (Sunni  77%,  Shi'a  20%),  Christian,  Hindu,  and 
  other  3% 
  Languages:  Urdu  (official),  English  (official;  lingua  franca  of 
  Pakistani  elite  and  most  government  ministries),  Punjabi  64%,  Sindhi 
  12%,  Pashtu  8%,  Urdu  7%,  Balochi  and  other  9% 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  35% 
  male:  47% 
  female:  21% 
  Labor  force:  36  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  46%,  mining  and  manufacturing  18%,  services 
  17%,  other  19% 
  note:  extensive  export  of  labor 
  conventional  long  form:  Islamic  Republic  of  Pakistan 
  conventional  short  form:  Pakistan 
  former:  West  Pakistan 
  Digraph:  PK 
  Type:  republic 
  Capital:  Islamabad 
  Administrative  divisions:  4  provinces,  1  territory*,  and  1  capital 
  territory**;  Balochistan  Federally  Administered  Tribal  Areas*, 
  Islamabad  Capital  Territory**,  North-West  Frontier,  Punjab,  Sindh 
  note:  the  Pakistani-administered  portion  of  the  disputed  Jammu  and 
  Kashmir  region  includes  Azad  Kashmir  and  the  Northern  Areas 
  Independence:  14  August  1947  (from  UK) 
  National  holiday:  Pakistan  Day  23  March  (1956)  (proclamation  of  the 
  Constitution:  10  April  1973,  suspended  5  July  1977,  restored  with 
  amendments  30  December  1985 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law  with  provisions  to 
  accommodate  Pakistan's  stature  as  an  Islamic  state;  accepts  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
  Suffrage:  21  years  of  age;  universal;  separate  electorates  and 
  reserved  parliamentary  seats  for  non-Muslims 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Sardar  Farooq  LEGHARI  election  last  held  13 
  November  1993  (next  to  be  held  no  later  than  14  October  1998);  results 
  -  LEGHARI  was  elected  by  Parliament  and  the  four  provincial  assemblies 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Benazir  BHUTTO 
  cabinet:  Cabinet 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  (Majlis-e-Shoora) 
  Senate:  elections  last  held  NA  March  1994  (next  to  be  held  NA  March 
  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (87  total)  PPP 
  22,  PML/N  17;  Tribal  Area  Representatives  (nonparty)  8,  ANP  6,  PML/J 
  5,  JWP  5,  MQM/A  5,  JUI/F  2,  PKMAP  2,  JI  2,  NPP  2,  BNM/H  1,  BNM/M  1, 
  JUP/NI  1,  JUP/NO  1,  JAH  1,  JUI/S  1,  PML/F  1,  PNP  1,  independents  2, 
  vacant  1 
  National  Assembly:  elections  last  held  6  October  1993  (next  to  be  held 
  by  October  1998);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (217 
  total)  PPP  92,  PML/N  75,  PML/J  6,  IJM-Islamic  Democratic  Front  4,  ANP 
  3,  PKMAP  4,  PIF  3,  JWP  2,  MDM  2,  BNM/H  1,  BNM/M  1,  NDA  1,  NPP  1,  PKQP 
  1,  Religious  minorities  10  reserved  seats,  independents  9,  results 
  pending  2 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court,  Federal  Islamic  (Shari'at)  Court 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  government:  Pakistan  People's  Party  (PPP),  Benazir  BHUTTO;  Pakistan 
  Muslim  League,  Junejo  faction  (PML/J),  Hamid  Nasir  CHATTHA  National 
  People's  Party  (NPP),  Ghulam  Mustapha  JATOI  Pakhtun  Khwa  Milli  Awami 
  Party  (PKMAP),  Mahmood  Khan  ACHAKZAI  Balochistan  National  Movement, 
  Hayee  Group  (BNM/H),  Dr  HAYEE  Baluch;  National  Democratic  Alliance 
  (NDA),  Maulana  Kausar  NIAZI;  Pakhtun  Quami  Party  (PKQP),  Mohammed 
  AFZAL  Khan;  Jamhoori  Watan  Party  (JWP),  Akbar  Khan  BUGTI 
  opposition:  Pakistan  Muslim  League,  Nawaz  Sharif  faction  (PML/N), 
  Nawaz  SHARIF;  Awami  National  Party  (ANP),  Khan  Abdul  WALI  KHAN; 
  Pakistan  Islamic  Front  (PIF),  Qazi  Hussain  AHMED  Balochistan  National 
  Movement,  Mengal  Group  (BNM/M),  Sardar  Akhtar  MENGAL;  Mohajir  Quami 
  Movement,  Altaf  faction  (MQM/A),  Altaf  HUSSAIN  Jamaat-i-Islami  (JI), 
  Qazi  Hussain  AHMED  Jamiat-al-Hadith  (JAH) 
  frequently  shifting:  Mutaheda  Deeni  Mahaz  (MDM),  Maulana  Sami-ul-HAQ, 
  the  MDM  includes  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Pakistan,  Niazi  faction  (JUP/NI)  and 
  Anjuman  Sepah-i-Sahaba  Pakistan  (ASSP);  Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz 
  (IJM-Islamic  Democratic  Party),  the  IJM  includes  Jamiat 
  Ulema-i-Islami,  Fazlur  Rehman  group  (JUI/F);  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Pakistan, 
  Noorani  faction  (JUP/NO);  Jamiat  Ulema-i-Islam,  Sami-ul-Haq  faction 
  (JUI/S);  Pakistan  Muslim  League,  Functional  Group  (PML/F);  Pakistan 
  National  Party  (PNP) 
  note:  political  alliances  in  Pakistan  can  shift  frequently 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  military  remains  important 
  political  force;  ulema  (clergy),  landowners,  industrialists,  and  small 
  merchants  also  influential 
  Member  of:  AsDB  C,  CCC,  CP  ECO,  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-19,  G-24,  G-77,  GATT, 
  NAM,  OAS  (observer),  OIC,  PCA,  SAARC  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Maleeha  LODHI 
  chancery:  2315  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-6200 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  387-0484 
  consulate(s)  general:  Los  Angeles  and  New  York 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  John  C.  MONJO 
  embassy:  Diplomatic  Enclave,  Ramna  5,  Islamabad 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  1048,  PSC  1212,  Box  2000,  Unit  6220, 
  Islamabad;  APO  AE  09812-2000 
  telephone:  [92]  (51)  826161  through  826179 
  FAX:  [92]  (51)  214222 
  consulate(s)  general:  Karachi,  Lahore 
  consulate(s):  Peshawar 
  Flag:  green  with  a  vertical  white  band  (symbolizing  the  role  of 
  religious  minorities)  on  the  hoist  side  a  large  white  crescent  and 
  star  are  centered  in  the  green  field;  the  crescent,  star,  and  color 
  green  are  traditional  symbols  of  Islam 
  Overview:  The  Pakistani  economy  has  made  progress  in  several  key  areas 
  since  Benazir  BHUTTO  became  Prime  Minister  in  October  1993.  She  has 
  been  under  pressure  from  international  donors  and  the  IMF  -  which  gave 
  Pakistan  a  $1.3  billion  structural  adjustment  credit  in  February  1994 
  -  to  continue  the  economic  reforms  and  austerity  measures  begun  by  her 
  predecessor,  caretaker  Prime  Minister  Moeen  QURESHI  (July-October 
  1993).  Foreign  exchange  reserves  climbed  to  more  than  $3  billion  in 
  1994,  and  the  budget  deficit  was  substantially  reduced.  Real  GDP 
  growth  was  4%  in  FY93/94,  up  from  2.3%  in  FY92/93.  Foreign  direct  and 
  portfolio  investment  also  have  increased.  Privatization  of  large 
  public  sector  utilities  began  in  1994  with  the  sale  of  12%  of  the 
  Pakistan  Telecommunications  Corporation  (PTC)  and  the  Water  and  Power 
  Development  Authority  (WAPDA);  the  sale  of  state-owned  banks  and  other 
  large  units  are  planned  for  1995.  Still  the  government  must  cope  with 
  long-standing  economic  vulnerabilities  -  high  levels  of  debt  service 
  and  defense  spending,  a  small  tax  base,  a  huge  population,  and 
  dependence  on  cotton-based  exports  -  which  hamper  its  ability  to 
  create  a  stable  economic  environment.  In  addition,  Pakistan's 
  infrastructure  is  inadequate  and  deteriorating,  low  levels  of  literacy 
  constrain  industrial  growth,  and  increasing  sectarian,  ethnic,  and 
  tribal  violence  disrupt  production. 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $248.5  billion  (1994 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4%  (1994  est.) 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,930  (1994  est.) 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  12%  (FY93/94) 
  Unemployment  rate:  10%  (FY90/91  est.) 
  revenues:  $10.5  billion 
  expenditures:  $11.2  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $3.1 
  billion  (FY93/94) 
  Exports:  $6.7  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  cotton,  textiles,  clothing,  rice,  leather,  carpets 
  partners:  US  Japan,  Hong  Kong,  Germany,  UK  UAE,  France 
  Imports:  $9.5  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  petroleum,  petroleum  products,  machinery,  transportation 
  equipment,  vegetable  oils,  animal  fats,  chemicals 
  partners:  Japan,  US  Germany,  UK  Saudi  Arabia,  Malaysia,  South  Korea 
  External  debt:  $24  billion  (1993  est.) 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  5.6%  (FY93/94);  accounts  for  18%  of 
  capacity:  10,800,000  kW  (1994) 
  production:  52.4  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  389  kWh  (1993) 
  Industries:  textiles,  food  processing,  beverages,  construction 
  materials,  clothing,  paper  products,  shrimp 
  Agriculture:  24%  of  GDP;  world's  largest  contiguous  irrigation  system; 
  major  crops  -  cotton,  wheat,  rice,  sugarcane,  fruits,  vegetables; 
  livestock  products  -  milk,  beef,  mutton,  eggs 
  Illicit  drugs:  major  illicit  producer  of  opium  and  hashish  for  the 
  international  drug  trade  remains  world's  third  largest  opium  producer 
  (160  metric  tons  in  1994);  major  center  for  processing  Afghan  heroin 
  and  key  transit  area  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin  moving  to  Western 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  $2.5  billion  (FY91/92);  $2.5  billion  (FY92/93);  $2.5 
  billion  (FY93/94);  no  US  commitments,  includes  bi-  and  multilateral 
  Currency:  1  Pakistani  rupee  (PRe)  =  100  paisa 
  Exchange  rates:  Pakistani  rupees  (PRs)  per  US$1  -  30.860  (January 
  1995),  30.570  (1994),  28.107  (1993),  25.083  (1992),  23.801  (1991), 
  21.707  (1990) 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
  total:  8,773  km 
  broad  gauge:  7,718  km  1.676-m  gauge  (286  km  electrified;  1,037  double 
  narrow  gauge:  445  km  1.000-m  gauge;  610  km  less  than  1.000-m  gauge 
  total:  177,410  km 
  paved:  94,027  km 
  unpaved:  83,383  km  (1991  est.) 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  250  km  petroleum  products  885  km  natural  gas 
  4,044  km  (1987) 
  Ports:  Gwadar,  Karachi,  Ormaro  (under  construction),  Port  Muhammad  bin 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  30  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  352,189  GRT/532,782  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  cargo  25,  oil  tanker  1,  passenger-cargo  3 
  total:  119 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  12 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  33 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  14 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  24 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  8 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  about  7  telephones/1,000  persons;  the 
  domestic  telephone  system  is  poor,  adequate  only  for  government  and 
  business  use  the  system  for  international  traffic  is  better 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  3  INTELSAT  (1  Atlantic  Ocean  and  2  Indian  Ocean)  earth 
  stations;  microwave  radio  relay 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  19,  FM  8,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
  broadcast  stations:  29 
  televisions:  NA 
  Pakistan:Defense  Forces 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Civil  Armed  Forces,  National  Guard, 
  paramilitary/security  forces 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  30,219,551;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  18,544,008;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  1,429,719  (1995  est.) 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $3.2  billion,  5.6%  of 
  GDP  (FY94/95) 

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