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china

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china


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Pink  \Pink\,  n.  [Perh.  akin  to  pick  as  if  the  edges  of  the 
  petals  were  picked  out  Cf  {Pink},  v.  t.] 
  1.  (Bot.)  A  name  given  to  several  plants  of  the 
  caryophyllaceous  genus  {Dianthus},  and  to  their  flowers, 
  which  are  sometimes  very  fragrant  and  often  double  in 
  cultivated  varieties.  The  species  are  mostly  perennial 
  herbs,  with  opposite  linear  leaves,  and  handsome 
  five-petaled  flowers  with  a  tubular  calyx. 
 
  2.  A  color  resulting  from  the  combination  of  a  pure  vivid  red 
  with  more  or  less  white;  --  so  called  from  the  common 
  color  of  the  flower.  --Dryden. 
 
  3.  Anything  supremely  excellent;  the  embodiment  or  perfection 
  of  something  ``The  very  pink  of  courtesy.''  --Shak. 
 
  4.  (Zo["o]l.)  The  European  minnow;  --  so  called  from  the 
  color  of  its  abdomen  in  summer.  [Prov.  Eng.] 
 
  {Bunch  pink}  is  {Dianthus  barbatus}. 
 
  {China},  or  {Indian},  {pink}.  See  under  {China}. 
 
  {Clove  pink}  is  {Dianthus  Caryophyllus},  the  stock  from  which 
  carnations  are  derived. 
 
  {Garden  pink}.  See  {Pheasant's  eye}. 
 
  {Meadow  pink}  is  applied  to  {Dianthus  deltoides};  also  to 
  the  ragged  robin. 
 
  {Maiden  pink},  {Dianthus  deltoides}. 
 
  {Moss  pink}.  See  under  {Moss}. 
 
  {Pink  needle},  the  pin  grass;  --  so  called  from  the  long, 
  tapering  points  of  the  carpels.  See  {Alfilaria}. 
 
  {Sea  pink}.  See  {Thrift}. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Porcelain  \Por"ce*lain\  (277),  n.  [F.  porcelaine,  It 
  porcellana  orig.,  the  porcelain  shell,  or  Venus  shell 
  (Cypr[ae]a  porcellana),  from  a  dim.  fr  L.  porcus  pig, 
  probably  from  the  resemblance  of  the  shell  in  shape  to  a 
  pig's  back  Porcelain  was  called  after  this  shell,  either  on 
  account  of  its  smoothness  and  whiteness,  or  because  it  was 
  believed  to  be  made  from  it  See  {Pork}.] 
  A  fine  translucent  or  semitransculent  kind  of  earthenware, 
  made  first  in  China  and  Japan,  but  now  also  in  Europe  and 
  America;  --  called  also  {China},  or  {China  ware}. 
 
  Porcelain,  by  being  pure,  is  apt  to  break.  --Dryden. 
 
  {Ivory  porcelain},  porcelain  with  a  surface  like  ivory, 
  produced  by  depolishing.  See  {Depolishing}. 
 
  {Porcelain  clay}.  See  under  {Clay}. 
 
  {Porcelain  crab}  (Zo["o]l.),  any  crab  of  the  genus 
  {Porcellana}  and  allied  genera  (family  {Porcellanid[ae]}). 
  They  have  a  smooth,  polished  carapace. 
 
  {Porcelain  jasper}.  (Min.)  See  {Porcelanite}. 
 
  {Porcelain  printing},  the  transferring  of  an  impression  of  an 
  engraving  to  porcelain. 
 
  {Porcelain  shell}  (Zo["o]l.),  a  cowry. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  China  \Chi"na\,  n. 
  1.  A  country  in  Eastern  Asia. 
 
  2.  China  ware,  which  is  the  modern  popular  term  for 
  porcelain.  See  {Porcelain}. 
 
  {China  aster}  (Bot.),  a  well-known  garden  flower  and  plant. 
  See  {Aster}. 
 
  {China  bean}.  See  under  {Bean},  1. 
 
  {China  clay}  See  {Kaolin}. 
 
  {China  grass},  Same  as  {Ramie}. 
 
  {China  ink}.  See  {India  ink}. 
 
  {China  pink}  (Bot.),  an  anual  or  biennial  species  of 
  {Dianthus}  ({D.  Chiensis})  having  variously  colored  single 
  or  double  flowers;  Indian  pink. 
 
  {China  root}  (Med.),  the  rootstock  of  a  species  of  {Smilax} 
  ({S.  China},  from  the  East  Indies;  --  formerly  much 
  esteemed  for  the  purposes  that  sarsaparilla  is  now  used 
  for  Also  the  galanga  root  (from  {Alpinia  Gallanga}  and 
  {Alpinia  officinarum}). 
 
  {China  rose}.  (Bot.) 
  a  A  popular  name  for  several  free-blooming  varieties  of 
  rose  derived  from  the  {Rosa  Indica},  and  perhaps  other 
  species. 
  b  A  flowering  hothouse  plant  ({Hibiscus  Rosa-Sinensis}) 
  of  the  Mallow  family,  common  in  the  gardens  of  China 
  and  the  east  Indies. 
 
  {China  shop},  a  shop  or  store  for  the  sale  of  China  ware  or 
  of  crockery. 
 
  {China  ware},  porcelain;  --  so  called  in  the  17th  century 
  because  brought  from  the  far  East,  and  differing  from  the 
  pottery  made  in  Europe  at  that  time;  also  loosely, 
  crockery  in  general. 
 
  {Pride  of  China},  {China  tree}.  (Bot.)  See  {Azedarach}. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  China 
  n  1:  a  communist  nation  in  eastern  Asia;  the  most  populous 
  country  in  the  world  [syn:  {China},  {mainland  China},  {Communist 
  China},  {Red  China},  {PRC},  {People's  Republic  of  China}] 
  2:  dishes,  vases,  or  ornaments 
  3:  a  government  on  the  island  of  Taiwan  established  in  1949  by 
  Chiang  Kaishek  after  the  conquest  of  mainland  China  by 
  communists  led  by  Mao  Zedong  [syn:  {Taiwan},  {China},  {Nationalist 
  China},  {Republic  of  China},  {Formosa}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  China,  TX  (city,  FIPS  14704) 
  Location:  30.05224  N,  94.33564  W 
  Population  (1990):  1144  (463  housing  units) 
  Area:  3.7  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  China 
 
  (also  see  separate  Taiwan  entry) 
 
  China:Geography 
 
  Location:  Eastern  Asia,  bordering  the  East  China  Sea,  Korea  Bay, 
  Yellow  Sea,  and  South  China  Sea,  between  North  Korea  and  Vietnam 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  9,596,960  sq  km 
  land  area:  9,326,410  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  the  US 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  22,143.34  km  Afghanistan  76  km  Bhutan  470  km 
  Burma  2,185  km  Hong  Kong  30  km  India  3,380  km  Kazakhstan  1,533  km 
  North  Korea  1,416  km  Kyrgyzstan  858  km  Laos  423  km  Macau  0.34  km 
  Mongolia  4,673  km  Nepal  1,236  km  Pakistan  523  km  Russia  (northeast) 
  3,605  km  Russia  (northwest)  40  km  Tajikistan  414  km  Vietnam  1,281 
  km 
 
  Coastline:  14,500  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  claim  to  shallow  areas  of  East  China  Sea  and  Yellow 
  Sea 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  boundary  with  India  in  dispute;  disputed 
  sections  of  the  boundary  with  Russia  remain  to  be  settled;  boundary 
  with  Tajikistan  in  dispute;  a  short  section  of  the  boundary  with  North 
  Korea  is  indefinite;  involved  in  a  complex  dispute  over  the  Spratly 
  Islands  with  Malaysia,  Philippines,  Taiwan,  Vietnam,  and  possibly 
  Brunei;  maritime  boundary  dispute  with  Vietnam  in  the  Gulf  of  Tonkin; 
  Paracel  Islands  occupied  by  China,  but  claimed  by  Vietnam  and  Taiwan; 
  claims  Japanese-administered  Senkaku-shoto  (Senkaku  Islands/Diaoyu 
  Tai),  as  does  Taiwan 
 
  Climate:  extremely  diverse;  tropical  in  south  to  subarctic  in  north 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains,  high  plateaus,  deserts  in  west;  plains, 
  deltas,  and  hills  in  east 
 
  Natural  resources:  coal,  iron  ore,  petroleum,  mercury,  tin,  tungsten, 
  antimony,  manganese,  molybdenum,  vanadium,  magnetite,  aluminum,  lead, 
  zinc,  uranium,  hydropower  potential  (world's  largest) 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  10% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  31% 
  forest  and  woodland:  14% 
  other:  45% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  478,220  sq  km  (1991  -  Chinese  data) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  the  overwhelming  use  of  high-sulfur 
  coal  as  a  fuel,  produces  acid  rain  which  is  damaging  forests;  water 
  shortages  experienced  throughout  the  country,  particularly  in  urban 
  areas;  future  growth  in  water  usage  threatens  to  outpace  supplies; 
  water  pollution  from  industrial  effluents;  much  of  the  population  does 
  not  have  access  to  potable  water;  less  than  10%  of  sewage  receives 
  treatment;  deforestation;  estimated  loss  of  one-fifth  of  agricultural 
  land  since  1957  to  soil  erosion  and  economic  development; 
  desertification  trade  in  endangered  species 
  natural  hazards:  frequent  typhoons  (about  five  per  year  along  southern 
  and  eastern  coasts);  damaging  floods;  tsunamis;  earthquakes;  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol, 
  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer 
  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands,  Whaling; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  world's  third-largest  country  (after  Russia  and  Canada) 
 
  China:People 
 
  Population:  1,203,097,268  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  26%  (female  151,266,866;  male  167,234,782) 
  15-64  years:  67%  (female  391,917,572;  male  419,103,994) 
  65  years  and  over:  7%  (female  39,591,692;  male  33,982,362)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.04%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  17.78  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.36  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  52.1  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  68.08  years 
  male:  67.09  years 
  female:  69.18  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.84  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Chinese  (singular  and  plural) 
  adjective:  Chinese 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Han  Chinese  91.9%,  Zhuang,  Uygur,  Hui,  Yi  Tibetan, 
  Miao,  Manchu,  Mongol,  Buyi,  Korean,  and  other  nationalities  8.1% 
 
  Religions:  Daoism  (Taoism),  Buddhism,  Muslim  2%-3%,  Christian  1% 
  (est.) 
  note:  officially  atheist,  but  traditionally  pragmatic  and  eclectic 
 
  Languages:  Standard  Chinese  or  Mandarin  (Putonghua,  based  on  the 
  Beijing  dialect),  Yue  (Cantonese),  Wu  (Shanghainese),  Minbei  (Fuzhou), 
  Minnan  (Hokkien-Taiwanese),  Xiang,  Gan,  Hakka  dialects,  minority 
  languages  (see  Ethnic  divisions  entry) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990) 
  total  population:  78% 
  male:  87% 
  female:  68% 
 
  Labor  force:  583.6  million  (1991) 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  and  forestry  60%,  industry  and  commerce 
  25%,  construction  and  mining  5%,  social  services  5%,  other  5%  (1990 
  est.) 
 
  China:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  People's  Republic  of  China 
  conventional  short  form:  China 
  local  long  form:  Zhonghua  Renmin  Gongheguo 
  local  short  form:  Zhong  Guo 
 
  Abbreviation:  PRC 
 
  Digraph:  CH 
 
  Type:  Communist  state 
 
  Capital:  Beijing 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  23  provinces  (sheng,  singular  and  plural),  5 
  autonomous  regions*  (zizhiqu,  singular  and  plural),  and  3 
  municipalities**  (shi,  singular  and  plural);  Anhui  Beijing**,  Fujian, 
  Gansu,  Guangdong  Guangxi*,  Guizhou  Hainan,  Hebei,  Heilongjiang 
  Henan,  Hubei,  Hunan,  Jiangsu  Jiangxi  Jilin,  Liaoning  Nei  Mongol*, 
  Ningxia*,  Qinghai  Shaanxi  Shandong,  Shanghai**,  Shanxi  Sichuan, 
  Tianjin**,  Xinjiang*,  Xizang*  (Tibet),  Yunnan,  Zhejiang 
  note:  China  considers  Taiwan  its  23rd  province 
 
  Independence:  221  BC  (unification  under  the  Qin  or  Ch'in  Dynasty  221 
  BC  Qing  or  Ch'ing  Dynasty  replaced  by  the  Republic  on  12  February 
  1912;  People's  Republic  established  1  October  1949) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  1  October  (1949) 
 
  Constitution:  most  recent  promulgated  4  December  1982 
 
  Legal  system:  a  complex  amalgam  of  custom  and  statute,  largely 
  criminal  law;  rudimentary  civil  code  in  effect  since  1  January  1987; 
  new  legal  codes  in  effect  since  1  January  1980;  continuing  efforts  are 
  being  made  to  improve  civil,  administrative,  criminal,  and  commercial 
  law 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  JIANG  Zemin  (since  27  March  1993);  Vice 
  President  RONG  Yiren  (since  27  March  1993);  election  last  held  27 
  March  1993  (next  to  be  held  1998);  results  -  JIANG  Zemin  was  nominally 
  elected  by  the  Eighth  National  People's  Congress 
  head  of  government:  Premier  LI  Peng  (Acting  Premier  since  24  November 
  1987,  Premier  since  9  April  1988)  Vice  Premier  ZHU  Rongji  (since  8 
  April  1991);  Vice  Premier  ZOU  Jiahua  (since  8  April  1991);  Vice 
  Premier  QIAN  Qichen  (since  29  March  1993);  Vice  Premier  LI  Lanqing  (29 
  March  1993);  Vice  Premier  WU  Bangguo  (since  17  March  1995);  Vice 
  Premier  JIANG  Chunyun  (since  17  March  1995) 
  cabinet:  State  Council;  appointed  by  the  National  People's  Congress 
  (NPC) 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  People's  Congress:  (Quanguo  Renmin  Daibiao  Dahui)  elections 
  last  held  March  1993  (next  to  be  held  March  1998);  results  -  CCP  is 
  the  only  party  but  there  are  also  independents;  seats  -  (2,977  total) 
  (elected  at  county  or  xian  level) 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  People's  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Chinese  Communist  Party  (CCP),  JIANG 
  Zemin,  general  secretary  of  the  Central  Committee  (since  24  June 
  1989);  eight  registered  small  parties  controlled  by  CCP 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  such  meaningful  opposition  as 
  exists  consists  of  loose  coalitions,  usually  within  the  party  and 
  government  organization,  that  vary  by  issue 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  APEC,  AsDB  CCC,  ESCAP,  FAO,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICFTU 
  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT, 
  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  NAM  (observer),  PCA,  UN  UN  Security 
  Council,  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNOMIL  UNOMOZ 
  UNTSO  UNU,  UPU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  LI  Daoyu 
  chancery:  2300  Connecticut  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  328-2500  through  2502 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles,  New  York,  and  San 
  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  J.  Stapleton  ROY 
  embassy:  Xiu  Shui  Bei  Jie  3,  100600  Beijing 
  mailing  address:  PSC  461,  Box  50,  Beijing;  FPO  AP  96521-0002 
  telephone:  [86]  (1)  5323831 
  FAX:  [86]  (1)  5323178 
  consulate(s)  general:  Chengdu  Guangzhou,  Shanghai,  Shenyang 
 
  Flag:  red  with  a  large  yellow  five-pointed  star  and  four  smaller 
  yellow  five-pointed  stars  (arranged  in  a  vertical  arc  toward  the 
  middle  of  the  flag)  in  the  upper  hoist-side  corner 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Beginning  in  late  1978  the  Chinese  leadership  has  been 
  trying  to  move  the  economy  from  the  sluggish  Soviet-style  centrally 
  planned  economy  to  a  more  productive  and  flexible  economy  with  market 
  elements,  but  still  within  the  framework  of  monolithic  Communist 
  control.  To  this  end  the  authorities  switched  to  a  system  of  household 
  responsibility  in  agriculture  in  place  of  the  old  collectivization, 
  increased  the  authority  of  local  officials  and  plant  managers  in 
  industry,  permitted  a  wide  variety  of  small-scale  enterprise  in 
  services  and  light  manufacturing,  and  opened  the  economy  to  increased 
  foreign  trade  and  investment.  The  result  has  been  a  strong  surge  in 
  production,  particularly  in  agriculture  in  the  early  1980s.  Industry 
  also  has  posted  major  gains,  especially  in  coastal  areas  near  Hong 
  Kong  and  opposite  Taiwan,  where  foreign  investment  and  modern 
  production  methods  have  helped  spur  production  of  both  domestic  and 
  export  goods.  Aggregate  output  has  more  than  doubled  since  1978.  On 
  the  darker  side  the  leadership  has  often  experienced  in  its  hybrid 
  system  the  worst  results  of  socialism  (bureaucracy,  lassitude, 
  corruption)  and  of  capitalism  (windfall  gains  and  stepped-up 
  inflation).  Beijing  thus  has  periodically  backtracked,  retightening 
  central  controls  at  intervals.  In  1992-94  annual  growth  of  GDP 
  accelerated,  particularly  in  the  coastal  areas  -  to  more  than  10% 
  annually  according  to  official  claims.  In  late  1993  China's  leadership 
  approved  additional  long-term  reforms  aimed  at  giving  more  play  to 
  market-oriented  institutions  and  at  strengthening  the  center's  control 
  over  the  financial  system.  In  1994  strong  growth  continued  in  the 
  widening  market-oriented  areas  of  the  economy.  At  the  same  time,  the 
  government  struggled  to  a  collect  revenues  due  from  provinces, 
  businesses,  and  individuals;  b  keep  inflation  within  bounds;  c 
  reduce  extortion  and  other  economic  crimes;  and  d  keep  afloat  the 
  large  state-owned  enterprises,  most  of  which  had  not  participated  in 
  the  vigorous  expansion  of  the  economy.  From  60  to  100  million  surplus 
  rural  workers  are  adrift  between  the  villages  and  the  cities,  many 
  barely  subsisting  through  part-time  low-pay  jobs.  Popular  resistance, 
  changes  in  central  policy,  and  loss  of  authority  by  rural  cadres  have 
  weakened  China's  population  control  program,  which  is  essential  to  the 
  nation's  long-term  economic  viability.  One  of  the  most  dangerous 
  long-term  threats  to  continued  rapid  economic  growth  is  the 
  deterioration  in  the  environment,  notably  air  pollution,  soil  erosion, 
  and  the  steady  fall  of  the  water  table  especially  in  the  north. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $2.9788  trillion 
  (1994  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992  by 
  use  of  official  Chinese  growth  statistics  for  1993-94;  because  of  the 
  difficulties  with  official  statistics  in  this  time  of  rapid  change, 
  the  result  may  overstate  China's  GDP  by  as  much  as  25%) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  11.8%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,500  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  25.5%  (December  1994  over  December 
  1993) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  2.7%  in  urban  areas  (1994);  substantial 
  underemployment 
 
  Budget:  deficit  $13.7  billion  (1994) 
 
  Exports:  $121  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994) 
  commodities:  textiles,  garments,  footwear,  toys,  machinery  and 
  equipment,  weapon  systems 
  partners:  Hong  Kong,  Japan,  US  Germany,  South  Korea,  Russia  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $115.7  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994) 
  commodities:  rolled  steel,  motor  vehicles,  textile  machinery,  oil 
  products,  aircraft 
  partners:  Japan,  Taiwan,  US  Hong  Kong,  Germany,  South  Korea  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $100  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  17.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  162,000,000  kW 
  production:  746  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  593  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  iron  and  steel,  coal,  machine  building,  armaments, 
  textiles  and  apparel,  petroleum,  cement,  chemical  fertilizers, 
  consumer  durables,  food  processing,  autos,  consumer  electronics, 
  telecommunications 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  almost  30%  of  GDP;  among  the  world's  largest 
  producers  of  rice,  potatoes,  sorghum,  peanuts,  tea,  millet,  barley, 
  and  pork;  commercial  crops  include  cotton,  other  fibers,  and  oilseeds; 
  produces  variety  of  livestock  products;  basically  self-sufficient  in 
  food;  fish  catch  of  13.35  million  metric  tons  (including  fresh  water 
  and  pond  raised)  (1991) 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  opium;  bulk  of  production  is  in 
  Yunnan  Province  (which  produced  25  metric  tons  in  1994);  transshipment 
  point  for  heroin  produced  in  the  Golden  Triangle 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  to  less  developed  countries  (1970-89)  $7  billion 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-87),  $220.7  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-87),  $13.5  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  yuan  Y  =  10  jiao 
 
  Exchange  rates:  yuan  Y  per  US$1  -  8.4413  (January  1995),  8.6187 
  (1994),  5.7620  (1993),  5.5146  (1992),  5.3234  (1991),  4.7832  (1990) 
  note:  beginning  1  January  1994,  the  People's  Bank  of  China  quotes  the 
  midpoint  rate  against  the  US  dollar  based  on  the  previous  day's 
  prevailing  rate  in  the  interbank  foreign  exchange  market 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  China:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  65,780  km 
  standard  gauge:  55,180  km  1.435-m  gauge  (7,174  km  electrified;  more 
  than  11,000  km  double  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  600  km  1.000-m  gauge;  10,000  km  0.762-m  to  1.067-m  gauge 
  dedicated  industrial  lines 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  1.029  million  km 
  paved:  170,000  km 
  unpaved:  gravel/improved  earth  648,000  km  unimproved  earth  211,000  km 
  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  138,600  km  about  109,800  km  navigable 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  9,700  km  petroleum  products  1,100  km  natural 
  gas  6,200  km  (1990) 
 
  Ports:  Aihui,  Changsha  Dalian,  Fuzhou  Guangzhou,  Hangzhou,  Harbin, 
  Huangpu  Nanning,  Ningbo  Qingdao  Qinhuangdao  Shanghai,  Shantou 
  Tanggu  Xiamen  Xingang  Zhanjiang 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  1,628  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  16,013,532 
  GRT/24,027,766  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  barge  carrier  3,  bulk  298,  cargo  849,  chemical  tanker 
  14,  combination  bulk  10,  container  98,  liquefied  gas  tanker  4, 
  multifunction  large  load  carrier  1,  oil  tanker  212,  passenger  24, 
  passenger-cargo  25,  refrigerated  cargo  21,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  24, 
  short-sea  passenger  44,  vehicle  carrier  1 
  note:  China  beneficially  owns  an  additional  250  ships  (1,000  GRT  or 
  over)  totaling  approximately  8,831,462  DWT  that  operate  under 
  Panamanian,  Hong  Kong,  Maltese,  Liberian,  Vanuatu,  Cypriot,  Saint 
  Vincent  and  the  Grenadines,  Bahamian,  and  Singaporean  registry 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  204 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  17 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  69 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  89 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  9 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  3 
 
  China:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  20,000,000  telephones  (summer  1994);  domestic  and 
  international  services  are  increasingly  available  for  private  use 
  unevenly  distributed  internal  system  serves  principal  cities, 
  industrial  centers,  and  most  townships;  expanding  phone  lines, 
  interprovincial  fiber  optic  links,  satellite  communications, 
  cellullar/mobile  communications,  etc 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  fiber  optic  trunk  lines,  55  earth  stations  for  domestic 
  satellites 
  international:  5  INTELSAT  earth  stations  (4  Pacific  Ocean  and  1  Indian 
  Ocean)  and  1  INMARSAT  earth  station;  several  international  fiber  optic 
  links  to  Japan  and  Hong  Kong 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  274,  FM  NA  shortwave  0 
  radios:  215  million 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  202  (repeaters  2,050) 
  televisions:  75  million 
 
  China:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  People's  Liberation  Army  (PLA),  which  includes  the  Ground 
  Forces,  Navy  (includes  Marines  and  Naval  Aviation),  Air  Force,  Second 
  Artillery  Corps  (the  strategic  missile  force),  People's  Armed  Police 
  (internal  security  troops,  nominally  subordinate  to  Ministry  of  Public 
  Security,  but  included  by  the  Chinese  as  part  of  the  "armed  forces" 
  and  considered  to  be  an  adjunct  to  the  PLA  in  war  time) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  351,330,411;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  194,286,619;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  9,841,658  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  defense  budget  -  63.09  billion  yuan,  NA%  of  GDP 
  (1995  est.);  note  -  conversion  of  the  defense  budget  into  US  dollars 
  using  the  current  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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