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bangladesh

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bangladesh


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Bangladesh 
  n  :  a  Moslem  Republic  in  southern  Asia  bordered  by  India  to  the 
  north  and  west  and  east  and  the  Bay  of  Bengal  to  the 
  south;  formerly  part  of  India  and  then  part  of  Pakistan; 
  it  achieved  independence  in  1971  [syn:  {Bangladesh},  {Bangla 
  Desh},  {East  Pakistan}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Bangladesh 
 
  Bangladesh:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Asia,  bordering  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  between  Burma 
  and  India 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  144,000  sq  km 
  land  area:  133,910  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Wisconsin 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  4,246  km  Burma  193  km  India  4,053  km 
 
  Coastline:  580  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  18  nm 
  continental  shelf:  up  to  the  outer  limits  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  a  portion  of  the  boundary  with  India  is  in 
  dispute;  water-sharing  problems  with  upstream  riparian  India  over  the 
  Ganges 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  cool,  dry  winter  (October  to  March);  hot,  humid 
  summer  (March  to  June);  cool,  rainy  monsoon  (June  to  October) 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  flat  alluvial  plain;  hilly  in  southeast 
 
  Natural  resources:  natural  gas,  arable  land,  timber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  67% 
  permanent  crops:  2% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  4% 
  forest  and  woodland:  16% 
  other:  11% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  27,380  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  many  people  are  landless  and  forced  to  live  on  and 
  cultivate  flood-prone  land;  limited  access  to  potable  water; 
  water-borne  diseases  prevalent;  water  pollution  especially  of  fishing 
  areas  results  from  the  use  of  commercial  pesticides;  intermittent 
  water  shortages  because  of  falling  water  tables  in  the  northern  and 
  central  parts  of  the  country;  soil  degradation;  deforestation;  severe 
  overpopulation 
  natural  hazards:  droughts,  cyclones;  much  of  the  country  routinely 
  flooded  during  the  summer  monsoon  season 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes, 
  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Bangladesh:People 
 
  Population:  128,094,948  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  40%  (female  25,195,262;  male  26,352,299) 
  15-64  years:  57%  (female  34,862,105;  male  37,867,705) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  1,761,336;  male  2,056,241)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.32%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  34.62  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  11.43  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  104.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  55.46  years 
  male:  55.69  years 
  female:  55.22  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  4.39  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Bangladeshi(s) 
  adjective:  Bangladesh 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Bengali  98%,  Biharis  250,000,  tribals  less  than  1 
  million 
 
  Religions:  Muslim  83%,  Hindu  16%,  Buddhist,  Christian,  other 
 
  Languages:  Bangla  (official),  English 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990) 
  total  population:  35% 
  male:  47% 
  female:  22% 
 
  Labor  force:  50.1  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  65%,  services  21%,  industry  and  mining  14% 
  (1989) 
  note:  extensive  export  of  labor  to  Saudi  Arabia,  UAE,  and  Oman  (1991) 
 
  Bangladesh:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  People's  Republic  of  Bangladesh 
  conventional  short  form:  Bangladesh 
  former:  East  Pakistan 
 
  Digraph:  BG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Dhaka 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  4  divisions;  Chittagong,  Dhaka,  Khulna 
  Rajshahi 
 
  Independence:  16  December  1971  (from  Pakistan) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  26  March  (1971) 
 
  Constitution:  4  November  1972,  effective  16  December  1972,  suspended 
  following  coup  of  24  March  1982,  restored  10  November  1986,  amended 
  many  times 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Abdur  Rahman  BISWAS  (since  8  October  1991); 
  election  last  held  8  October  1991  (next  to  be  held  by  NA  October 
  1996);  results  -  Abdur  Rahman  BISWAS  received  52.1%  of  parliamentary 
  vote 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Khaleda  ZIAur  RAHMAN  (since  20 
  March  1991) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Parliament  (Jatiya  Sangsad):  elections  last  held  27  February 
  1991  (next  to  be  held  by  February  1996);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (330  total,  300  elected  and  30  seats  reserved  for 
  women)  BNP  168,  AL  93,  JP  35,  JI  20,  BCP  5,  National  Awami  Party 
  Muzaffar  1,  Workers  Party  1,  JSD  1,  Ganotantri  Party  1,  Islami  Oikya 
  Jote  1,  NDP  1,  independents  3 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Bangladesh  Nationalist  Party  (BNP), 
  Khaleda  ZIAur  RAHMAN;  Awami  League  (AL),  Sheikh  Hasina  WAJED;  Jatiyo 
  Party  (JP),  Hussain  Mohammad  ERSHAD  (in  jail);  Jamaat-E-Islami  (JI), 
  Ali  KHAN;  Bangladesh  Communist  Party  (BCP),  Saifuddin  Ahmed  MANIK; 
  National  Awami  Party  (Muzaffar);  Workers  Party,  leader  NA  Jatiyo 
  Samajtantik  Dal  (JSD),  Serajul  ALAM  KHAN;  Ganotantri  Party,  leader  NA 
  Islami  Oikya  Jote,  leader  NA  National  Democratic  Party  (NDP),  leader 
  NA  Muslim  League,  Khan  A.  SABUR;  Democratic  League,  Khondakar 
  MUSHTAQUE  Ahmed  Democratic  League,  Khondakar  MUSHTAQUE  Ahmed  United 
  People's  Party,  Kazi  ZAFAR  Ahmed 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  C,  CCC,  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IDB,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  NAM,  OIC,  SAARC  UN 
  UNAMIR  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNOMIG  UNOMIL  UNOMOZ  UNOMUR 
  UNOSOM  UNPROFOR  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Humayun  KABIR 
  chancery:  2201  Wisconsin  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  342-8372  through  8376 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  David  N.  MERRILL 
  embassy:  Diplomatic  Enclave,  Madani  Avenue,  Baridhara  Dhaka 
  mailing  address:  G.  P.  O.  Box  323,  Dhaka  1212 
  telephone:  [880]  (2)  884700  through  884722 
  FAX:  [880]  (2)  883-744 
 
  Flag:  green  with  a  large  red  disk  slightly  to  the  hoist  side  of 
  center;  green  is  the  traditional  color  of  Islam 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Despite  sustained  domestic  and  international  efforts  to 
  improve  economic  and  demographic  prospects,  Bangladesh  remains  one  of 
  the  world's  poorest,  most  densely  populated,  and  least  developed 
  nations.  Its  economy  is  overwhelmingly  agricultural,  with  the 
  cultivation  of  rice  the  single  most  important  activity  in  the  economy. 
  Major  impediments  to  growth  include  frequent  cyclones  and  floods,  the 
  inefficiency  of  state-owned  enterprises,  a  rapidly  growing  labor  force 
  that  cannot  be  absorbed  by  agriculture,  delays  in  exploiting  energy 
  resources  (natural  gas),  and  inadequate  power  supplies.  Excellent  rice 
  crops  and  expansion  of  the  export  garment  industry  led  to  real  growth 
  of  4%  in  1992  and  again  in  1993.  Policy  measures  intended  to  reduce 
  government  regulation  of  private  industry,  to  curb  population  growth, 
  and  to  expand  employment  opportunities  have  had  only  partial  success 
  given  the  serious  nature  of  Bangladesh's  basic  problems. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $130.1  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,040  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  4.3%  (1992  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $2.8  billion 
  expenditures:  $4.1  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $1.8 
  billion  (FY92/93) 
 
  Exports:  $2.38  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  garments,  jute  and  jute  goods,  leather,  shrimp 
  partners:  US  33%,  Western  Europe  39%  (Germany  8.4%,  Italy  6%)  (FY91/92 
  est.) 
 
  Imports:  $3.99  billion  (1993) 
  commodities:  capital  goods,  petroleum,  food,  textiles 
  partners:  Hong  Kong  7.5%,  Singapore  7.4%,  China  7.4%,  Japan  7.1% 
  (FY91/92  est.) 
 
  External  debt:  $13.5  billion  (June  1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  6.9%  (FY92/93  est.);  accounts  for 
  9.4%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  2,740,000  kW 
  production:  9.2  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  70  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  jute  manufacturing,  cotton  textiles,  food  processing, 
  steel,  fertilizer 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  33%  of  GDP,  65%  of  employment,  and  one-fifth 
  of  exports;  world's  largest  exporter  of  jute;  commercial  products  - 
  jute,  rice,  wheat,  tea,  sugarcane,  potatoes,  beef,  milk,  poultry; 
  shortages  include  wheat,  vegetable  oils,  cotton 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transit  country  for  illegal  drugs  produced  in 
  neighboring  countries 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $3.4  billion; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1980-89),  $11.65  million;  OPEC  bilateral  aid  (1979-89),  $6.52 
  million;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $1.5  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  taka  Tk  =  100  poiska 
 
  Exchange  rates:  taka  Tk  per  US$1  -  40.250  (January  1995),  40.212 
  (1994),  39.567  (1993),  38.951  (1992),  36.596  (1991),  34.569  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  July  -  30  June 
 
  Bangladesh:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,892  km 
  broad  gauge:  978  km  1.676-m  gauge 
  narrow  gauge:  1,914  km  1.000-m  gauge  (1992) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  7,240  km 
  paved:  3,840  km 
  unpaved:  3,400  km  (1985) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  5,150-8,046  km  navigable  waterways  (includes 
  2,575-3,058  km  main  cargo  routes) 
 
  Pipelines:  natural  gas  1,220  km 
 
  Ports:  Barisal  Chandpur  Chittagong,  Cox's  Bazar,  Dacca,  Khulna 
  Mongla  (includes  Chalna),  Narayanganj 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  38  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  293,304  GRT/428,013  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  2,  cargo  31,  oil  tanker  2,  refrigerated  cargo  3 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  16 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  7 
 
  Bangladesh:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  241,250  telephones;  1  telephone/522  persons;  poor 
  domestic  telephone  service 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Indian  Ocean)  earth  stations;  adequate 
  international  radio  communications  and  landline  service 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  9,  FM  6,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  11 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Bangladesh:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force 
  paramilitary  forces:  Bangladesh  Rifles,  Bangladesh  Ansars  Armed 
  Police  Reserve,  Village  Defense  Parties,  National  Cadet  Corps 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  33,039,035;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  19,607,817  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $448  million,  1.7%  of 
  GDP  (FY93/94) 
 
 
 




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