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canada

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canada


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Canada  \Ca*[~n]a"da\,  n.  [Sp.] 
  A  small  ca[~n]on;  a  narrow  valley  or  glen;  also  but  less 
  frequently,  an  open  valley.  [Local,  Western  U.  S.] 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Canada  \Can"a*da\,  n. 
  A  British  province  in  North  America,  giving  its  name  to 
  various  plants  and  animals. 
 
  {Canada  balsam}.  See  under  {Balsam}. 
 
  {Canada  goose}.  (Zo["o]l.)  See  {Wild  goose}. 
 
  {Canada  jay}.  See  {Whisky  Jack}. 
 
  {Canada  lynx}.  (Zo["o]l.)  See  {Lynx}. 
 
  {Canada  porcupine}  (Zo["o]l.)  See  {Porcupine},  and  {Urson}. 
 
 
  {Canada  rice}  (Bot.)  See  under  {Rick}. 
 
  {Canada  robin}  (Zo["o]l.),  the  cedar  bird. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Canada 
  n  :  a  nation  in  northern  North  America;  the  French  were  the 
  first  Europeans  to  settle  in  mainland  Canada;  "the  border 
  between  the  United  States  and  Canada  is  the  longest 
  unguarded  border  in  the  world"  [syn:  {Canada}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Canada,  KY 
  Zip  code(s):  41519 
 
  From  The  Free  On-line  Dictionary  of  Computing  (13  Mar  01)  [foldoc]: 
 
  Canada 
 
  Country  with  {domain}  "ca". 
 
  (1995-04-06) 
 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Canada 
 
  Canada:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  North  America,  bordering  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean 
  and  North  Pacific  Ocean,  north  of  the  conterminous  US 
 
  Map  references:  North  America 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  9,976,140  sq  km 
  land  area:  9,220,970  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  US 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  8,893  km  US  8,893  km  (includes  2,477  km  with 
  Alaska) 
 
  Coastline:  243,791  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm  or  to  the  edge  of  the  continental  margin 
  exclusive  fishing  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  maritime  boundary  disputes  with  the  US  Saint 
  Pierre  and  Miquelon  is  focus  of  maritime  boundary  dispute  between 
  Canada  and  France 
 
  Climate:  varies  from  temperate  in  south  to  subarctic  and  arctic  in 
  north 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  plains  with  mountains  in  west  and  lowlands  in 
  southeast 
 
  Natural  resources:  nickel,  zinc,  copper,  gold,  lead,  molybdenum, 
  potash,  silver,  fish,  timber,  wildlife,  coal,  petroleum,  natural  gas 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  5% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  3% 
  forest  and  woodland:  35% 
  other:  57% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  8,400  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  and  resulting  acid  rain  severely 
  affecting  lakes  and  damaging  forests;  metal  smelting,  coal-burning 
  utilities,  and  vehicle  emissions  impacting  on  agricultural  and  forest 
  productivity;  ocean  waters  becoming  contaminated  due  to  agricultural, 
  industrial,  mining,  and  forestry  activities 
  natural  hazards:  continuous  permafrost  in  north  is  a  serious  obstacle 
  to  development;  cyclonic  storms  form  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  a 
  result  of  the  mixing  of  air  masses  from  the  Arctic,  Pacific,  and 
  American  interior,  and  produce  most  of  the  country's  rain  and  snow 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Antarctic  Treaty, 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental 
  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  94,  Air 
  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic-Environmental 
  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  second-largest  country  in  world  (after  Russia);  strategic 
  location  between  Russia  and  US  via  north  polar  route;  nearly  90%  of 
  the  population  is  concentrated  in  the  region  near  the  US/Canada  border 
 
  Canada:People 
 
  Population:  28,434,545  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  21%  (female  2,874,705;  male  3,016,050) 
  15-64  years:  67%  (female  9,529,272;  male  9,531,107) 
  65  years  and  over:  12%  (female  2,022,324;  male  1,461,087)  (July  1995 
  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  1.09%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  13.74  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.43  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  4.55  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  6.8  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  78.29  years 
  male:  74.93  years 
  female:  81.81  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.83  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Canadian(s) 
  adjective:  Canadian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  British  Isles  origin  40%,  French  origin  27%,  other 
  European  20%,  indigenous  Indian  and  Eskimo  1.5% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  46%,  United  Church  16%,  Anglican  10%,  other 
  28% 
 
  Languages:  English  (official),  French  (official) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1986) 
  total  population:  97% 
 
  Labor  force:  13.38  million 
  by  occupation:  services  75%,  manufacturing  14%,  agriculture  4%, 
  construction  3%,  other  4%  (1988) 
 
  Canada:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  none 
  conventional  short  form:  Canada 
 
  Digraph:  CA 
 
  Type:  confederation  with  parliamentary  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Ottawa 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  10  provinces  and  2  territories*;  Alberta, 
  British  Columbia,  Manitoba,  New  Brunswick,  Newfoundland,  Northwest 
  Territories*,  Nova  Scotia,  Ontario,  Prince  Edward  Island,  Quebec, 
  Saskatchewan,  Yukon  Territory* 
 
  Independence:  1  July  1867  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Canada  Day  1  July  (1867) 
 
  Constitution:  amended  British  North  America  Act  1867  patriated  to 
  Canada  17  April  1982;  charter  of  rights  and  unwritten  customs 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law,  except  in  Quebec,  where 
  civil  law  system  based  on  French  law  prevails;  accepts  compulsory  ICJ 
  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  Queen  ELIZABETH  II  (since  6  February  1952), 
  represented  by  Governor  General  Romeo  LeBLANC  (since  8  February  1995) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Jean  CHRETIEN  (since  4  November 
  1993)  was  elected  on  25  October  1993,  replacing  Kim  CAMBELL;  Deputy 
  Prime  Minister  Sheila  COPPS 
  cabinet:  Federal  Ministry;  chosen  by  the  prime  minister  from  members 
  of  his  own  party  sitting  in  Parliament 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament  (Parlement) 
  Senate  (Senat):  consisting  of  a  body  whose  members  are  appointed  to 
  serve  until  75  years  of  age  by  the  governor  general  and  selected  on 
  the  advice  of  the  prime  minister;  its  normal  limit  104  senators 
  House  of  Commons  (Chambre  des  Communes):  elections  last  held  25 
  October  1993  (next  to  be  held  by  NA  October  1998);  results  -  percent 
  of  votes  by  party  NA  seats  -  (295  total)  Liberal  Party  178,  Bloc 
  Quebecois  54,  Reform  Party  52,  New  Democratic  Party  8,  Progressive 
  Conservative  Party  2,  independents  1 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Liberal  Party,  Jean  CHRETIEN;  Bloc 
  Quebecois  Lucien  BOUCHARD  Reform  Party,  Preston  MANNING;  New 
  Democratic  Party,  Audrey  McLAUGHLIN;  Progressive  Conservative  Party, 
  Jean  CHAREST 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  AfDB  AG  (observer),  APEC,  AsDB  Australia  Group 
  BIS,  C,  CCC,  CDB  (non-regional),  EBRD,  ECE,  ECLAC  ESA  (cooperating 
  state),  FAO,  G-  7,  G-  8,  G-10,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC, 
  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  MTCR,  NACC,  NAM 
  (guest),  NATO,  NEA,  NSG,  OAS,  OECD  ONUSAL  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNAMIR 
  UNCTAD  UNDOF  UNESCO,  UNFICYP  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNITAR,  UNOMOZ 
  UNOSOM  UNPROFOR  UNTSO  UNU,  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Raymond  A.J.  CHRETIEN 
  chancery:  501  Pennsylvania  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20001 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  682-1740 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  682-7726 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Boston,  Buffalo,  Chicago,  Dallas, 
  Detroit,  Los  Angeles,  Minneapolis,  New  York,  and  Seattle 
  consulate(s):  Cincinnati,  Cleveland,  Miami,  Philadelphia,  Pittsburgh, 
  Princeton,  San  Diego,  San  Francisco,  San  Jose,  and  San  Juan  (Puerto 
  Rico) 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  James  Johnston  BLANCHARD 
  embassy:  100  Wellington  Street,  K1P  5T1,  Ottawa 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  5000,  Ogdensburg,  NY  13669-0430 
  telephone:  [1]  (613)  238-5335,  4470 
  FAX:  [1]  (613)  238-5720 
  consulate(s)  general:  Calgary,  Halifax,  Montreal,  Quebec,  Toronto,  and 
  Vancouver 
 
  Flag:  three  vertical  bands  of  red  (hoist  side),  white  (double  width, 
  square),  and  red  with  a  red  maple  leaf  centered  in  the  white  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  As  an  affluent,  high-tech  industrial  society,  Canada  today 
  closely  resembles  the  US  in  per  capita  output,  market-oriented 
  economic  system,  and  pattern  of  production.  Since  World  War  II  the 
  impressive  growth  of  the  manufacturing,  mining,  and  service  sectors 
  has  transformed  the  nation  from  a  largely  rural  economy  into  one 
  primarily  industrial  and  urban.  In  the  1980s,  Canada  registered  one  of 
  the  highest  rates  of  real  growth  among  the  OECD  nations,  averaging 
  about  3.2%.  With  its  great  natural  resources,  skilled  labor  force,  and 
  modern  capital  plant,  Canada  has  excellent  economic  prospects, 
  although  the  country  still  faces  high  unemployment  and  a  growing  debt. 
  Moreover,  the  continuing  constitutional  impasse  between  English-  and 
  French-speaking  areas  has  observers  discussing  a  possible  split  in  the 
  confederation;  foreign  investors  have  become  edgy. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $639.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4.5%  (1994) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $22,760  (1994) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  0.2%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  9.6%  (December  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $85  billion  (Federal) 
  expenditures:  $115.3  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (FY93/94  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $164.3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  newsprint,  wood  pulp,  timber,  crude  petroleum,  machinery, 
  natural  gas,  aluminum,  motor  vehicles  and  parts  telecommunications 
  equipment 
  partners:  US  Japan,  UK  Germany,  South  Korea,  Netherlands,  China 
 
  Imports:  $151.5  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  crude  oil,  chemicals,  motor  vehicles  and  parts  durable 
  consumer  goods,  electronic  computers;  telecommunications  equipment  and 
  parts 
  partners:  US  Japan,  UK  Germany,  France,  Mexico,  Taiwan,  South  Korea 
 
  External  debt:  $243  billion  (1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4.8%  (1993) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  108,090,000  kW 
  production:  511  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  16,133  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  processed  and  unprocessed  minerals,  food  products,  wood 
  and  paper  products,  transportation  equipment,  chemicals,  fish 
  products,  petroleum  and  natural  gas 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  3%  of  GDP;  one  of  the  world's  major 
  producers  and  exporters  of  grain  (wheat  and  barley);  key  source  of  US 
  agricultural  imports;  large  forest  resources  cover  35%  of  total  land 
  area;  commercial  fisheries  provide  annual  catch  of  1.5  million  metric 
  tons,  of  which  75%  is  exported 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  for  the  domestic  drug 
  market;  use  of  hydroponics  technology  permits  growers  to  plant  large 
  quantities  of  high-quality  marijuana  indoors;  growing  role  as  a 
  transit  point  for  heroin  and  cocaine  entering  the  US  market 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $7.2  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Canadian  dollar  (Can$)  =  100  cents 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Canadian  dollars  (Can$)  per  US$1  -  1.4129  (January 
  1995),  1.3656  (1994),  1.2901  (1993),  1.2087  (1992),  1.1457  (1991), 
  1.1668  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Canada:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  78,148  km  note  -  there  are  two  major  transcontinental  freight 
  railway  systems:  Canadian  National  (government  owned)  and  Canadian 
  Pacific  Railway;  passenger  service  provided  by  VIA  (government 
  operated) 
  standard  gauge:  78,148  km  1.435-m  gauge  (185  km  electrified)  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  849,404  km 
  paved:  253,692  km  (15,983  km  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  gravel  595,712  km  (1991) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  3,000  km  including  Saint  Lawrence  Seaway 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  and  refined  oil  23,564  km  natural  gas  74,980  km 
 
  Ports:  Becancour  Churchill,  Halifax,  Montreal,  New  Westminister, 
  Prince  Rupert,  Quebec,  Saint  John  (New  Brunswick),  Saint  John's 
  (Newfoundland),  Seven  Islands,  Sydney,  Three  Rivers,  Toronto, 
  Vancouver,  Windsor 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  71  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  617,010  GRT/878,819  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  17,  cargo  10,  chemical  tanker  5,  oil  tanker  23, 
  passenger  1,  passenger-cargo  1,  railcar  carrier  2,  roll-on/roll-off 
  cargo  7,  short-sea  passenger  3,  specialized  tanker  2 
  note:  does  not  include  ships  used  exclusively  in  the  Great  Lakes 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  1,386 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  17 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  16 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  147 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  234 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  550 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  69 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  353 
 
  Canada:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  18,000,000  telephones;  excellent  service  provided  by 
  modern  media 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  about  300  earth  stations  for  domestic  satellite 
  communications 
  international:  5  coaxial  submarine  cables;  5  INTELSAT  earth  stations 
  (4  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Pacific  Ocean) 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  900,  FM  29,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  53  (repeaters  1,400) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Canada:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Canadian  Armed  Forces  (includes  Land  Forces  Command  or  LC 
  Maritime  Command  or  MC  Air  Command  or  AC  Communications  Command  or 
  CC  Training  Command  or  TC),  Royal  Canadian  Mounted  Police  (RCMP) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  7,570,877;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  6,522,092;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  151,590  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $9.0  billion,  1.6%  of 
  GDP  (FY95/96) 
 
 
 




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