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diabetes

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diabetes


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Sugar  \Sug"ar\,  n.  [OE.  sugre,  F.  sucre  (cf.  It  zucchero  Sp 
  az['u]car),  fr  Ar  sukkar  assukkar  fr  Skr.  [,c]arkar[=a] 
  sugar,  gravel;  cf  Per.  shakar.  Cf  {Saccharine},  {Sucrose}.] 
  1.  A  sweet  white  (or  brownish  yellow)  crystalline  substance, 
  of  a  sandy  or  granular  consistency,  obtained  by 
  crystallizing  the  evaporated  juice  of  certain  plants,  as 
  the  sugar  cane,  sorghum,  beet  root,  sugar  maple,  etc  It 
  is  used  for  seasoning  and  preserving  many  kinds  of  food 
  and  drink.  Ordinary  sugar  is  essentially  sucrose.  See  the 
  Note  below. 
 
  Note:  The  term  sugar  includes  several  commercial  grades,  as 
  the  white  or  refined,  granulated,  loaf  or  lump,  and  the 
  raw  brown  or  muscovado.  In  a  more  general  sense  it 
  includes  several  distinct  chemical  compounds,  as  the 
  glucoses,  or  grape  sugars  (including  glucose  proper, 
  dextrose,  and  levulose),  and  the  sucroses,  or  true 
  sugars  (as  cane  sugar).  All  sugars  are  carbohydrates. 
  See  {Carbohydrate}.  The  glucoses,  or  grape  sugars,  are 
  ketone  alcohols  of  the  formula  {C6H12O6},  and  they  turn 
  the  plane  of  polarization  to  the  right  or  the  left 
  They  are  produced  from  the  amyloses  and  sucroses,  as  by 
  the  action  of  heat  and  acids  of  ferments,  and  are 
  themselves  decomposed  by  fermentation  into  alcohol  and 
  carbon  dioxide.  The  only  sugar  (called  acrose)  as  yet 
  produced  artificially  belongs  to  this  class.  The 
  sucroses,  or  cane  sugars,  are  doubled  glucose 
  anhydrides  of  the  formula  {C12H22O11}.  They  are  usually 
  not  fermentable  as  such  (cf.  {Sucrose}),  and  they  act 
  on  polarized  light. 
 
  2.  By  extension,  anything  resembling  sugar  in  taste  or 
  appearance;  as  sugar  of  lead  (lead  acetate),  a  poisonous 
  white  crystalline  substance  having  a  sweet  taste. 
 
  3.  Compliment  or  flattery  used  to  disguise  or  render 
  acceptable  something  obnoxious;  honeyed  or  soothing  words 
  [Colloq.] 
 
  {Acorn  sugar}.  See  {Quercite}. 
 
  {Cane  sugar},  sugar  made  from  the  sugar  cane;  sucrose,  or  an 
  isomeric  sugar.  See  {Sucrose}. 
 
  {Diabetes},  or  {Diabetic},  {sugar}  (Med.  Chem.),  a  variety  of 
  sugar  (probably  grape  sugar  or  dextrose)  excreted  in  the 
  urine  in  diabetes  mellitus. 
 
  {Fruit  sugar}.  See  under  {Fruit},  and  {Fructose}. 
 
  {Grape  sugar},  a  sirupy  or  white  crystalline  sugar  (dextrose 
  or  glucose)  found  as  a  characteristic  ingredient  of  ripe 
  grapes,  and  also  produced  from  many  other  sources.  See 
  {Dextrose},  and  {Glucose}. 
 
  {Invert  sugar}.  See  under  {Invert}. 
 
  {Malt  sugar},  a  variety  of  sugar  isomeric  with  sucrose,  found 
  in  malt.  See  {Maltose}. 
 
  {Manna  sugar},  a  substance  found  in  manna,  resembling,  but 
  distinct  from  the  sugars.  See  {Mannite}. 
 
  {Milk  sugar},  a  variety  of  sugar  characteristic  of  fresh 
  milk,  and  isomeric  with  sucrose.  See  {Lactose}. 
 
  {Muscle  sugar},  a  sweet  white  crystalline  substance  isomeric 
  with  and  formerly  regarded  to  the  glucoses.  It  is  found 
  in  the  tissue  of  muscle,  the  heart,  liver,  etc  Called 
  also  {heart  sugar}.  See  {Inosite}. 
 
  {Pine  sugar}.  See  {Pinite}. 
 
  {Starch  sugar}  (Com.  Chem.),  a  variety  of  dextrose  made  by 
  the  action  of  heat  and  acids  on  starch  from  corn, 
  potatoes,  etc.;  --  called  also  {potato  sugar},  {corn 
  sugar},  and  inaccurately,  {invert  sugar}.  See  {Dextrose}, 
  and  {Glucose}. 
 
  {Sugar  barek},  one  who  refines  sugar. 
 
  {Sugar  beet}  (Bot.),  a  variety  of  beet  ({Beta  vulgaris})  with 
  very  large  white  roots,  extensively  grown,  esp.  in  Europe, 
  for  the  sugar  obtained  from  them 
 
  {Sugar  berry}  (Bot.),  the  hackberry. 
 
  {Sugar  bird}  (Zo["o]l.),  any  one  of  several  species  of  small 
  South  American  singing  birds  of  the  genera  {C[oe]reba}, 
  {Dacnis},  and  allied  genera  belonging  to  the  family 
  {C[oe]rebid[ae]}.  They  are  allied  to  the  honey  eaters. 
 
  {Sugar  bush}.  See  {Sugar  orchard}. 
 
  {Sugar  camp},  a  place  in  or  near  a  sugar  orchard,  where  maple 
  sugar  is  made 
 
  {Sugar  candian},  sugar  candy.  [Obs.] 
 
  {Sugar  candy},  sugar  clarified  and  concreted  or  crystallized; 
  candy  made  from  sugar. 
 
  {Sugar  cane}  (Bot.),  a  tall  perennial  grass  ({Saccharum 
  officinarium}),  with  thick  short-jointed  stems.  It  has 
  been  cultivated  for  ages  as  the  principal  source  of  sugar. 
 
 
  {Sugar  loaf}. 
  a  A  loaf  or  mass  of  refined  sugar,  usually  in  the  form 
  of  a  truncated  cone. 
  b  A  hat  shaped  like  a  sugar  loaf. 
 
  Why,  do  not  or  know  you  grannam,  and  that  sugar 
  loaf?  --J.  Webster. 
 
  {Sugar  maple}  (Bot.),  the  rock  maple  ({Acer  saccharinum}). 
  See  {Maple}. 
 
  {Sugar  mill},  a  machine  for  pressing  out  the  juice  of  the 
  sugar  cane,  usually  consisting  of  three  or  more  rollers, 
  between  which  the  cane  is  passed. 
 
  {Sugar  mite}.  (Zo["o]l.) 
  a  A  small  mite  ({Tyroglyphus  sacchari}),  often  found  in 
  great  numbers  in  unrefined  sugar. 
  b  The  lepisma. 
 
  {Sugar  of  lead}.  See  {Sugar},  2,  above. 
 
  {Sugar  of  milk}.  See  under  {Milk}. 
 
  {Sugar  orchard},  a  collection  of  maple  trees  selected  and 
  preserved  for  purpose  of  obtaining  sugar  from  them  -- 
  called  also  sometimes  {sugar  bush}.  [U.S.]  --Bartlett. 
 
  {Sugar  pine}  (Bot.),  an  immense  coniferous  tree  ({Pinus 
  Lambertiana})  of  California  and  Oregon,  furnishing  a  soft 
  and  easily  worked  timber.  The  resinous  exudation  from  the 
  stumps,  etc.,  has  a  sweetish  taste,  and  has  been  used  as  a 
  substitute  for  sugar. 
 
  {Sugar  squirrel}  (Zo["o]l.),  an  Australian  flying  phalanger 
  ({Belideus  sciureus}),  having  a  long  bushy  tail  and  a 
  large  parachute.  It  resembles  a  flying  squirrel.  See 
  Illust.  under  {Phlanger}. 
 
  {Sugar  tongs},  small  tongs,  as  of  silver,  used  at  table  for 
  taking  lumps  of  sugar  from  a  sugar  bowl. 
 
  {Sugar  tree}.  (Bot.)  See  {Sugar  maple},  above. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Diabetes  \Di`a*be"tes\,  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr  ?,  fr  ?  to  pass  or 
  cross  over  See  {Diabase}.]  (Med.) 
  A  disease  which  is  attended  with  a  persistent,  excessive 
  discharge  of  urine.  Most  frequently  the  urine  is  not  only 
  increased  in  quantity,  but  contains  saccharine  matter,  in 
  which  case  the  disease  is  generally  fatal. 
 
  {Diabetes  mellitus}  [NL.,  sweet  diabetes],  that  form  of 
  diabetes  in  which  the  urine  contains  saccharine  matter. 
 
  {Diabetes  insipidus}  [NL.,  lit.,  diabetes],  the  form  of 
  diabetes  in  which  the  urine  contains  no  abnormal 
  constituent. 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  diabetes 
  n  :  any  of  several  metabolic  disorders  marked  by  excessive 
  urination  and  persistent  thirst 




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