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botswana

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botswana


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Botswana 
  n  :  a  republic  in  south-central  Africa  that  became  independent 
  from  British  control  in  the  1960s  [syn:  {Botswana}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Botswana 
 
  Botswana:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Africa,  north  of  South  Africa 
 
  Map  references:  Africa 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  600,370  sq  km 
  land  area:  585,370  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Texas 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  4,013  km  Namibia  1,360  km  South  Africa  1,840 
  km  Zimbabwe  813  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  short  section  of  boundary  with  Namibia  is 
  indefinite;  quadripoint  with  Namibia,  Zambia,  and  Zimbabwe  is  in 
  disagreement;  dispute  with  Namibia  over  uninhabited  Kasikili  Sidudu 
  Island  in  Linyanti  (Chobe)  River  remained  unresolved  in  mid-February 
  1995  and  the  parties  agreed  to  refer  the  matter  to  the  International 
  Court  of  Justice 
 
  Climate:  semiarid;  warm  winters  and  hot  summers 
 
  Terrain:  predominately  flat  to  gently  rolling  tableland;  Kalahari 
  Desert  in  southwest 
 
  Natural  resources:  diamonds,  copper,  nickel,  salt,  soda  ash,  potash, 
  coal,  iron  ore,  silver 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  2% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  75% 
  forest  and  woodland:  2% 
  other:  21% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  20  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  overgrazing  primarily  as  a  result  of  the  expansion  of 
  the  cattle  population;  desertification  limited  natural  fresh  water 
  resources 
  natural  hazards:  periodic  droughts;  seasonal  August  winds  blow  from 
  the  west,  carrying  sand  and  dust  across  the  country,  which  can  obscure 
  visibility 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Climate  Change,  Endangered 
  Species,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Biodiversity 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  population  concentrated  in  eastern  part  of  the 
  country 
 
  Botswana:People 
 
  Population:  1,392,414  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  43%  (female  300,598;  male  303,333) 
  15-64  years:  53%  (female  398,347;  male  344,838) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  25,773;  male  19,525)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.36%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  31.01  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  7.41  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  38  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  63.56  years 
  male:  60.54  years 
  female:  66.67  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  3.86  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Motswana  (singular),  Batswana  (plural) 
  adjective:  Motswana  (singular),  Batswana  (plural) 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Batswana  95%,  Kalanga,  Basarwa  and  Kgalagadi  4%, 
  white  1% 
 
  Religions:  indigenous  beliefs  50%,  Christian  50% 
 
  Languages:  English  (official),  Setswana 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  23% 
  male:  32% 
  female:  16% 
 
  Labor  force:  428,000  (1992) 
  by  occupation:  220,000  formal  sector  employees,  most  others  are 
  engaged  in  cattle  raising  and  subsistence  agriculture  (1992  est.); 
  14,300  are  employed  in  various  mines  in  South  Africa  (March  1992) 
 
  Botswana:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Botswana 
  conventional  short  form:  Botswana 
  former:  Bechuanaland 
 
  Digraph:  BC 
 
  Type:  parliamentary  republic 
 
  Capital:  Gaborone 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  10  districts;  Central,  Chobe,  Ghanzi, 
  Kgalagadi  Kgatleng  Kweneng  Ngamiland  North-East,  South-East, 
  Southern;  in  addition,  there  are  4  town  councils  -  Francistown, 
  Gaborone,  Lobatse,  Selebi-Phikwe 
 
  Independence:  30  September  1966  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  30  September  (1966) 
 
  Constitution:  March  1965,  effective  30  September  1966 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Roman-Dutch  law  and  local  customary  law; 
  judicial  review  limited  to  matters  of  interpretation;  has  not  accepted 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  21  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Sir  Ketumile  MASIRE 
  (since  13  July  1980);  Vice  President  Festus  MOGAE  (since  9  March 
  1992);  election  last  held  15  October  1994  (next  to  be  held  October 
  1999);  results  -  President  Sir  Ketumile  MASIRE  was  reelected  by  the 
  National  Assembly 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament 
  House  of  Chiefs:  is  a  largely  advisory  15-member  body  consisting  of 
  chiefs  of  the  8  principal  tribes,  4  elected  subchiefs  and  3  members 
  selected  by  the  other  12 
  National  Assembly:  elections  last  held  15  October  1994  (next  to  be 
  held  October  1999);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  -  (44 
  total  of  which  40  are  elected  and  4  are  appointed)  BDP  27,  BNF  13 
 
  Judicial  branch:  High  Court,  Court  of  Appeal 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Botswana  Democratic  Party  (BDP),  Sir 
  Ketumile  MASIRE  Botswana  National  Front  (BNF),  Kenneth  KOMA;  Botswana 
  People's  Party  (BPP),  Knight  MARIPE;  Botswana  Independence  Party 
  (BIP),  Motsamai  MPHO 
 
  Member  of:  ACP,  AfDB  C,  CCC,  ECA,  FAO,  FLS,  G-77,  GATT,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory 
  user),  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ITU,  NAM,  OAU,  SACU,  SADC,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO, 
  UNIDO  UNOMOZ  UNOMUR  UNOSOM  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WMO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Botsweletse  Kingsley  SEBELE 
  chancery:  Suite  7M,  3400  International  Drive  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  244-4990,  4991 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  244-4164 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Howard  F.  JETER 
  embassy:  address  NA  Gaborone 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  90,  Gaborone 
  telephone:  [267]  353982 
  FAX:  [267]  356947 
 
  Flag:  light  blue  with  a  horizontal  white-edged  black  stripe  in  the 
  center 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  economy  has  historically  been  based  on  cattle  raising 
  and  crops.  Agriculture  today  provides  a  livelihood  for  more  than  80% 
  of  the  population  but  supplies  only  about  50%  of  food  needs  and 
  accounts  for  only  5%  of  GDP.  Subsistence  farming  and  cattle  raising 
  predominate.  The  driving  force  behind  the  rapid  economic  growth  of  the 
  1970s  and  1980s  has  been  the  mining  industry.  This  sector,  mostly  on 
  the  strength  of  diamonds,  has  gone  from  generating  25%  of  GDP  in  1980 
  to  39%  in  1994.  No  other  sector  has  experienced  such  growth, 
  especially  not  agriculture,  which  is  plagued  by  erratic  rainfall  and 
  poor  soils.  The  unemployment  rate  remains  a  problem  at  25%.  Hampered 
  by  a  still  sluggish  diamond  market  in  1994,  GDP  grew  by  only  1%. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $4.3  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  1%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,130  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  25%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $1.7  billion 
  expenditures:  $1.99  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $652 
  million  (FY93/94) 
 
  Exports:  $1.8  billion  (f.o.b.  1994) 
  commodities:  diamonds  78%,  copper  and  nickel  6%,  meat  5% 
  partners:  Switzerland,  UK  SACU  (Southern  African  Customs  Union) 
 
  Imports:  $1.8  billion  (c.i.f.,  1992) 
  commodities:  foodstuffs,  vehicles  and  transport  equipment,  textiles, 
  petroleum  products 
  partners:  Switzerland,  SACU  (Southern  African  Customs  Union),  UK  US 
 
  External  debt:  $344  million  (December  1991) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  4.6%  (FY92/93);  accounts  for  about 
  43%  of  GDP,  including  mining 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  220,000  kW 
  production:  900  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  694  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  mining  of  diamonds,  copper,  nickel,  coal,  salt,  soda  ash, 
  potash;  livestock  processing 
 
  Agriculture:  sorghum,  maize,  millet,  pulses,  groundnuts,  beans, 
  cowpeas,  sunflower  seeds;  livestock 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  aid  (1992),  $13  million;  Norway  (1992),  $16  million; 
  Sweden  (1992),  $15.5  million;  Germany  (1992),  $3.6  million;  EC/Lome-IV 
  (1992),  $3  million-$6  million  in  grants;  $28.7  million  in  long-term 
  projects  (1992) 
 
  Currency:  1  pula  P  =  100  thebe 
 
  Exchange  rates:  pula  P  per  US$1  -  1.7086  (January  1995),  2.6976 
  (November  1994),  2.4190  (1993),  2.1327  (1992),  2.0173  (1991),  1.8601 
  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Botswana:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  888  km 
  narrow  gauge:  888  km  1.067-m  gauge  (1992) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  11,514  km 
  paved:  1,600  km 
  unpaved:  crushed  stone,  gravel  1,700  km  improved  earth  5,177  km 
  unimproved  earth  3,037  km 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  100 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  6 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  23 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  62 
 
  Botswana:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  26,000  telephones;  sparse  system;  telephone  density 
  -  18.67  telephones/1,000  persons 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  small  system  of  open  wire  lines,  microwave  radio  relay 
  links,  and  a  few  radio  communication  stations 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Indian  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  7,  FM  13,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  0 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Botswana:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Botswana  Defense  Force  (includes  Army  and  Air  Wing), 
  Botswana  National  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  306,878;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  161,376;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  15,403  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $198  million,  5.2%  of 
  GDP  (FY93/94) 
 
 
 




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