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cambodia

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cambodia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Cambodia 
  n  :  a  nation  in  Asia;  was  part  of  French-ruled  Indochina  until 
  1946  [syn:  {Cambodia},  {Kampuchea},  {People's  Republic  of 
  Kampuchea}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Cambodia 
 
  Cambodia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southeastern  Asia,  bordering  the  Gulf  of  Thailand,  between 
  Thailand  and  Vietnam 
 
  Map  references:  Southeast  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  181,040  sq  km 
  land  area:  176,520  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Oklahoma 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,572  km  Laos  541  km  Thailand  803  km  Vietnam 
  1,228  km 
 
  Coastline:  443  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  24  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200  nm 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  offshore  islands  and  sections  of  the  boundary 
  with  Vietnam  are  in  dispute;  maritime  boundary  with  Vietnam  not 
  defined;  parts  of  border  with  Thailand  in  dispute;  maritime  boundary 
  with  Thailand  not  clearly  defined 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  rainy,  monsoon  season  (May  to  November);  dry  season 
  (December  to  April);  little  seasonal  temperature  variation 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  low  flat  plains;  mountains  in  southwest  and  north 
 
  Natural  resources:  timber,  gemstones,  some  iron  ore,  manganese, 
  phosphates,  hydropower  potential 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  16% 
  permanent  crops:  1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  3% 
  forest  and  woodland:  76% 
  other:  4% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  920  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  logging  activities  throughout  the  country  and  strip 
  mining  for  gems  in  the  western  region  along  the  border  with  Thailand 
  are  resulting  in  habitat  loss  and  declining  biodiversity  (in 
  particular,  destruction  of  mangrove  swamps  threatens  natural 
  fisheries);  deforestation;  soil  erosion;  in  rural  areas,  a  majority  of 
  the  population  does  not  have  access  to  potable  water 
  natural  hazards:  monsoonal  rains  (June  to  November);  flooding; 
  occasional  droughts 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Ship 
  Pollution;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Endangered 
  Species,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping 
 
  Note:  a  land  of  paddies  and  forests  dominated  by  the  Mekong  River  and 
  Tonle  Sap 
 
  Cambodia:People 
 
  Population:  10,561,373  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  46%  (female  2,367,414;  male  2,438,104) 
  15-64  years:  51%  (female  2,932,788;  male  2,494,203) 
  65  years  and  over:  3%  (female  185,337;  male  143,527)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.83%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  44.42  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  16.16  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  109.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  49.46  years 
  male:  48  years 
  female:  51  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  5.81  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Cambodian(s) 
  adjective:  Cambodian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Khmer  90%,  Vietnamese  5%,  Chinese  1%,  other  4% 
 
  Religions:  Theravada  Buddhism  95%,  other  5% 
 
  Languages:  Khmer  (official),  French 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1990  est.) 
  total  population:  35% 
  male:  48% 
  female:  22% 
 
  Labor  force:  2.5  million  to  3  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  80%  (1988  est.) 
 
  Cambodia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Kingdom  of  Cambodia 
  conventional  short  form:  Cambodia 
  local  long  form:  Reacheanachak  Kampuchea 
  local  short  form:  Kampuchea 
 
  Digraph:  CB 
 
  Type:  multiparty  liberal  democracy  under  a  constitutional  monarchy 
  established  in  September  1993 
 
  Capital:  Phnom  Penh 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  21  provinces  (khet,  singular  and  plural); 
  Banteay  Meanchey  Batdambang  Kampong  Cham,  Kampong  Chhnang  Kampong 
  Spoe,  Kampong  Thum,  Kampot,  Kandal,  Kaoh  Kong,  Kracheh  Mondol  Kiri, 
  Phnum  Penh,  Pouthisat  Preah  Vihear  Prey  Veng,  Rotanokiri 
  Siemreab-Otdar  Meanchey  Sihanoukville  Stoeng  Treng,  Svay  Rieng, 
  Takev 
  note:  Siemreab-Otdar  Meanchey  may  have  been  divided  into  two  provinces 
  named  Siemreab  and  Otdar  Meanchey 
 
  Independence:  9  November  1949  (from  France) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  9  November  1949 
 
  Constitution:  promulgated  September  1993 
 
  Legal  system:  currently  being  defined 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  King  Norodom  SIHANOUK  (reinstated  24  September  1993) 
  head  of  government:  power  shared  between  First  Prime  Minister  Prince 
  Norodom  RANARIDDH  and  Second  Prime  Minister  HUN  SEN 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  elected  by  the  National  Assembly 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral;  a  120-member  constituent  assembly 
  based  on  proportional  representation  within  each  province  was 
  established  following  the  UN-supervised  election  in  May  1993;  the 
  constituent  assembly  was  transformed  into  a  legislature  in  September 
  1993  after  delegates  promulgated  the  constitution 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  provided  for  by  the  constitution  has 
  not  yet  been  established  and  the  future  judicial  system  is  yet  to  be 
  defined  by  law 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  National  United  Front  for  an 
  Independent,  Neutral,  Peaceful,  and  Cooperative  Cambodia  (FUNCINPEC), 
  Prince  NORODOM  RANARIDDH  Cambodian  Pracheachon  Party  or  Cambodian 
  People's  Party  (CPP),  CHEA  SIM;  Buddhist  Liberal  Democratic  Party,  SON 
  SANN;  Democratic  Kampuchea  (DK,  also  known  as  the  Khmer  Rouge),  KHIEU 
  SAMPHAN;  Molinaka  PROM  NEAKAREACH 
 
  Member  of:  ACCT,  AsDB  CP  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM, 
  IDA,  IFAD,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory  user), 
  INTERPOL,  ITU,  NAM,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US:  Ambassador  SISOWATH  SIRIRATH 
  represents  Cambodia  at  the  United  Nations 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Charles  H.  TWINING 
  embassy:  27  EO  Street  240,  Phnom  Penh 
  mailing  address:  Box  P,  APO  AP  96546 
  telephone:  [855]  (23)  26436,  26438 
  FAX:  [855]  (23)  26437 
 
  Flag:  horizontal  band  of  red  separates  two  equal  horizontal  bands  of 
  blue  with  a  white  three-towered  temple  representing  Angkor  Wat  in  the 
  center 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  The  Cambodian  economy  -  virtually  destroyed  by  decades  of 
  war  -  is  slowly  recovering.  Government  leaders  are  moving  toward 
  restoring  fiscal  and  monetary  discipline  and  have  established  good 
  working  relations  with  international  financial  institutions.  Growth, 
  starting  from  a  low  base,  has  been  strong  in  1991-94.  Despite  such 
  positive  developments,  the  reconstruction  effort  faces  many  tough 
  challenges  because  of  the  persistence  of  internal  political  divisions 
  and  the  related  lack  of  confidence  of  foreign  investors.  Rural 
  Cambodia,  where  90%  of  about  9.5  million  Khmer  live,  remains  mired  in 
  poverty.  The  almost  total  lack  of  basic  infrastructure  in  the 
  countryside  will  hinder  development  and  will  contribute  to  a  growing 
  imbalance  in  growth  between  urban  and  rural  areas  over  the  near  term. 
  Moreover,  the  government's  lack  of  experience  in  administering 
  economic  and  technical  assistance  programs  and  rampant  corruption 
  among  officials  will  slow  the  growth  of  critical  public  sector 
  investment.  Inflation  for  1994  as  a  whole  was  less  than  a  quarter  of 
  the  1992  rate  and  was  declining  during  the  year. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $6.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $630  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  26%-30%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  NA% 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $190  million 
  expenditures:  $365  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $120 
  million  (1994  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $283.6  million  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  timber,  rubber,  soybeans,  sesame 
  partners:  Singapore,  Japan,  Thailand,  Hong  Kong,  Indonesia,  Malaysia 
 
  Imports:  $479.3  million  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  cigarettes,  construction  materials,  petroleum  products, 
  machinery 
  partners:  Singapore,  Vietnam,  Japan,  Australia,  Hong  Kong,  Indonesia 
 
  External  debt:  $383  million  to  OECD  members  (1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7.9%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  8% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  40,000  kW 
  production:  160  million  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  14  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  rice  milling,  fishing,  wood  and  wood  products,  rubber, 
  cement,  gem  mining 
 
  Agriculture:  mainly  subsistence  farming  except  for  rubber  plantations; 
  main  crops  -  rice,  rubber,  corn;  food  shortages  -  rice,  meat, 
  vegetables,  dairy  products,  sugar,  flour 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  increasingly  used  as  a  transshipment  country  for  heroin 
  produced  in  the  Golden  Triangle;  growing  money-laundering  center; 
  high-level  narcotics-related  corruption  in  government;  possible 
  small-scale  heroin  production;  large  producer  of  cannibis 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $725  million; 
  Western  (non-US  countries)  (1970-89),  $300  million;  Communist 
  countries  (1970-89),  $1.8  billion;  donor  countries  and  multilateral 
  institutions  pledged  $880  million  in  assistance  in  1992;  IMF  pledged 
  $120  million  in  aid  for  1995-98 
 
  Currency:  1  new  riel  CR  =  100  sen 
 
  Exchange  rates:  riels  CR  per  US$1  -  2,470  (December  1993),  2,800 
  (September  1992),  500  (December  1991),  560  (1990),  159.00  (1988), 
  100.00  (1987) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Cambodia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  655  km 
  narrow  gauge:  655  km  1.000-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  34,100  km  (some  roads  in  serious  disrepair) 
  paved:  bituminous  3,000  km 
  unpaved:  crushed  stone,  gravel,  or  improved  earth  3,100  km  unimproved 
  earth  28,000  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  3,700  km  navigable  all  year  to  craft  drawing  0.6 
  meters;  282  km  navigable  to  craft  drawing  1.8  meters 
 
  Ports:  Kampong  Saom  (Sihanoukville),  Kampot,  Krong  Kaoh  Kong,  Phnom 
  Penh 
 
  Merchant  marine:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  22 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  2 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  10 
 
  Cambodia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  NA  telephones;  service  barely  adequate  for 
  government  requirements  and  virtually  nonexistent  for  general  public 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  international  service  limited  to  Vietnam  and  other 
  adjacent  countries 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  1,  FM  0,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Cambodia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches: 
  Khmer  Royal  Armed  Forces  (KRAF):  created  in  1993  by  the  merger  of  the 
  Cambodian  People's  Armed  Forces  and  the  two  non-Communist  resistance 
  armies;  note  -  the  KRAF  is  also  known  as  the  Royal  Cambodian  Armed 
  Forces  (RCAF) 
  Resistance  forces:  National  Army  of  Democratic  Kampuchea  (Khmer  Rouge) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,255,050;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,256,632;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  70,707  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $85  million,  1.4%  of 
  GDP  (1995  est.) 
 
 
 




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