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hungary

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hungary


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Hungary  \Hun"ga*ry\,  n. 
  A  country  in  Central  Europe,  now  a  part  of  the 
  Austro-Hungarian  Empire. 
 
  {Hungary  water},  a  distilled  ``water,''  made  from  dilute 
  alcohol  aromatized  with  rosemary  flowers,  etc 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Hungary 
  n  :  a  republic  in  central  Europe  [syn:  {Hungary},  {Magyarorszag}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Hungary 
 
  Hungary:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  Europe,  northwest  of  Romania 
 
  Map  references:  Ethnic  Groups  in  Eastern  Europe,  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  93,030  sq  km 
  land  area:  92,340  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Indiana 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,989  km  Austria  366  km  Croatia  329  km 
  Romania  443  km  Serbia  and  Montenegro  151  km  (all  with  Serbia), 
  Slovakia  515  km  Slovenia  82  km  Ukraine  103  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  Gabcikovo  Dam  dispute  with  Slovakia 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  cold,  cloudy,  humid  winters;  warm  summers 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  flat  to  rolling  plains;  hills  and  low  mountains  on  the 
  Slovakian  border 
 
  Natural  resources:  bauxite,  coal,  natural  gas,  fertile  soils 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  50.7% 
  permanent  crops:  6.1% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  12.6% 
  forest  and  woodland:  18.3% 
  other:  12.3% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  1,750  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution;  industrial  and  municipal  pollution  of 
  Lake  Balaton 
  natural  hazards:  levees  are  common  along  many  streams,  but  flooding 
  occurs  almost  every  year 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Antarctic  Treaty, 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental 
  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Wetlands;  signed,  but  not 
  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  94,  Air  Pollution-Volatile  Organic 
  Compounds,  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  strategic  location  astride  main  land  routes  between 
  Western  Europe  and  Balkan  Peninsula  as  well  as  between  Ukraine  and 
  Mediterranean  basin 
 
  Hungary:People 
 
  Population:  10,318,838  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  18%  (female  918,281;  male  958,027) 
  15-64  years:  68%  (female  3,534,218;  male  3,440,036) 
  65  years  and  over:  14%  (female  914,221;  male  554,055)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.02%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  12.65  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  12.44  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  11.9  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  71.9  years 
  male:  67.94  years 
  female:  76.06  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.82  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Hungarian(s) 
  adjective:  Hungarian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Hungarian  89.9%,  Gypsy  4%,  German  2.6%,  Serb  2%, 
  Slovak  0.8%,  Romanian  0.7% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  67.5%,  Calvinist  20%,  Lutheran  5%,  atheist 
  and  other  7.5% 
 
  Languages:  Hungarian  98.2%,  other  1.8% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1980) 
  total  population:  99% 
  male:  99% 
  female:  98% 
 
  Labor  force:  5.4  million 
  by  occupation:  services,  trade  government,  and  other  44.8%,  industry 
  29.7%,  agriculture  16.1%,  construction  7.0%  (1991) 
 
  Hungary:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Hungary 
  conventional  short  form:  Hungary 
  local  long  form:  Magyar  Koztarsasag 
  local  short  form:  Magyarorszag 
 
  Digraph:  HU 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Budapest 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  38  counties  (megyek,  singular  -  megye)  and  1 
  capital  city*  (fovaros);  Bacs-Kiskun,  Baranya  Bekes,  Bekescsaba 
  Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen,  Budapest*,  Csongrad  Debrecen  Dunaujvaros 
  Eger,  Fejer,  Gyor,  Gyor-Moson-Sopron,  Hajdu-Bihar,  Heves, 
  Hodmezovasarhely  Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok,  Kaposvar  Kecskemet 
  Komarom-Esztergom,  Miskolc  Nagykanizsa  Nograd  Nyiregyhaza  Pecs, 
  Pest,  Somogy  Sopron  Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg,  Szeged  Szekesfehervar 
  Szolnok  Szombathely  Tatabanya  Tolna,  Vas,  Veszprem  Zala, 
  Zalaegerszeg 
 
  Independence:  1001  (unification  by  King  Stephen  I) 
 
  National  holiday:  St  Stephen's  Day  (National  Day),  20  August 
  (commemorates  the  founding  of  Hungarian  state  circa  1000  A.D.) 
 
  Constitution:  18  August  1949,  effective  20  August  1949,  revised  19 
  April  1972;  18  October  1989  revision  ensured  legal  rights  for 
  individuals  and  constitutional  checks  on  the  authority  of  the  prime 
  minister  and  also  established  the  principle  of  parliamentary  oversight 
 
  Legal  system:  in  process  of  revision,  moving  toward  rule  of  law  based 
  on  Western  model 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Arpad  GONCZ  (since  3  August  1990;  previously 
  interim  president  from  2  May  1990);  election  last  held  3  August  1990 
  (next  to  be  held  NA  1995);  results  -  President  GONCZ  elected  by 
  parliamentary  vote;  note  -  President  GONCZ  was  elected  by  the  National 
  Assembly  with  a  total  of  295  votes  out  of  304  as  interim  President 
  from  2  May  1990  until  elected  President 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Gyula  HORN  (since  15  July  1994) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers;  elected  by  the  National  Assembly  on 
  recommendation  of  the  president 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  National  Assembly  (Orszaggyules):  elections  last  held  on  8  and  29  May 
  1994  (next  to  be  held  spring  1998);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party 
  NA  seats  -  (386  total)  MSzP  209,  SzDSz  70,  MDF  37,  FKgP  26,  KDNP  22, 
  FiDeSz  20,  other  2 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Constitutional  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Hungarian  Democratic  Forum  (MDF),  Lajos 
  FUR,  chairman;  Independent  Smallholders  (FKgP),  Jozsef  TORGYAN 
  president;  Hungarian  Socialist  Party  (MSzP),  Gyula  HORN,  president; 
  Christian  Democratic  People's  Party  (KDNP),  Dr  Lazlo  SURJAN 
  president;  Federation  of  Young  Democrats  (FiDeSz),  Viktor  ORBAN, 
  chairman;  Alliance  of  Free  Democrats  (SzDSz),  Ivan  PETO,  chairman 
  note:  the  Hungarian  Socialist  (Communist)  Workers'  Party  MSzMP 
  renounced  Communism  and  became  the  Hungarian  Socialist  Party  (MSzP)  in 
  October  1989;  there  is  still  a  small  MMP 
 
  Member  of:  Australia  Group  BIS,  CCC,  CE  CEI,  CERN,  EBRD,  ECE,  FAO, 
  G-  9,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MTCR,  NACC,  NAM  (guest),  NSG, 
  OAS  (observer),  OSCE,  PCA,  PFP,  UN  UNAVEM  II  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR 
  UNIDO  UNIKOM  UNOMIG  UNOMOZ  UNOMUR  UNU,  UPU,  WEU  (associate 
  partner),  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Gyorgy  BANLAKI  (since  27  October  1994) 
  chancery:  3910  Shoemaker  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  362-6730 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  966-8135 
  consulate(s)  general:  Los  Angeles  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Donald  M.  BLINKEN 
  embassy:  V.  Szabadsag  Ter  12,  Budapest 
  mailing  address:  Am  Embassy,  Unit  1320,  Budapest;  APO  AE  09213-1320 
  telephone:  [36]  (1)  112-6450 
  FAX:  [36]  (1)  132-8934 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  white,  and  green 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Since  1989  Hungary  has  been  a  leader  in  the  transition  from 
  a  socialist  command  economy  to  a  market  economy  -  thanks  in  large  part 
  to  its  initial  economic  reforms  during  the  Communist  era.  The  private 
  sector  now  accounts  for  about  55%  of  GDP.  Nonetheless,  the 
  transformation  is  proving  difficult,  and  many  citizens  say  life  was 
  better  under  the  old  system.  On  the  bright  side  the  four-year  decline 
  in  output  finally  ended  in  1994,  as  real  GDP  increased  an  estimated 
  3%.  This  growth  helped  reduce  unemployment  to  just  over  10%  by 
  yearend,  down  from  a  peak  of  13%.  However,  no  progress  was  made 
  against  inflation,  which  remained  stuck  at  about  20%,  and  the 
  already-large  current  account  deficit  in  the  balance  of  payments 
  actually  got  worse,  reaching  almost  $4  billion.  Underlying  Hungary's 
  other  economic  problems  is  the  large  budget  deficit,  which  probably 
  exceeded  7%  of  GDP  in  1994,  despite  some  late-year  budget  cutting  by 
  the  new  leftist  government.  In  1995  the  government  has  pledged  to 
  accelerate  privatization  and  lower  the  budget  deficit  to  5.5%  of  GDP. 
  It  believes  this  fiscal  tightening  will  reduce  the  current  account 
  deficit  to  $2.5  billion  but  at  the  cost  of  holding  economic  growth  to 
  only  1%. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $58.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $5,700  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  21%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  10.4%  (yearend  1994) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $11.3  billion 
  expenditures:  $14.2  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1994) 
 
  Exports:  $10.3  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  raw  materials  and  semi-finished  goods  30.0%,  machinery 
  and  transport  equipment  20.1%,  consumer  goods  25.2%,  food  and 
  agriculture  21.4%,  fuels  and  energy  3.4%  (1993) 
  partners:  Germany  25.3%,  Italy  8.3%,  Austria  10.5%,  the  FSU  14.0%,  US 
  4.3%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $14.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  fuels  and  energy  12.6%,  raw  materials  and  semi-finished 
  goods  27.3%,  machinery  and  transport  equipment  33.0%,  consumer  goods 
  21.2%,  food  and  agriculture  5.9%  (1993) 
  partners:  Germany  21.5%,  Italy  6.1%,  Austria  11.8%,  the  FSU  20.9%,  US 
  4.3%  (1993);  note  -  about  one-fourth  of  the  imports  from  the  FSU  were 
  MiGs  delivered  as  a  debt  payment 
 
  External  debt:  $27  billion  (September  1994) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  7%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  6,740,000  kW 
  production:  31  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,012  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  mining,  metallurgy,  construction  materials,  processed 
  foods,  textiles,  chemicals  (especially  pharmaceuticals),  buses, 
  automobiles 
 
  Agriculture:  including  forestry,  accounts  for  15%  of  GDP  and  16%  of 
  employment;  highly  diversified  crop  and  livestock  farming;  principal 
  crops  -  wheat,  corn,  sunflowers,  potatoes,  sugar  beets;  livestock  - 
  hogs,  cattle,  poultry,  dairy  products;  self-sufficient  in  food  output 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  Southeast  Asia  heroin  and  South 
  American  cocaine  destined  for  Western  Europe;  limited  producer  of 
  precursor  chemicals 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  assistance  pledged  by  OECD  countries  since  1989  about  $9 
  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  forint  Ft  =  100  filler 
 
  Exchange  rates:  forints  per  US$1  -  112  (January  1995),  105.16  (1994), 
  91.93  (1993),  78.99  (1992),  74.74  (1991),  63.21  (1990),  59.07  (1989) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Hungary:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  7,785  km 
  broad  gauge:  35  km  1.520-m  gauge 
  standard  gauge:  7,574  km  1.435-m  gauge  (2,277  km  electrified;  1,236  km 
  double  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  176  km  mostly  0.760-m  gauge  (1994) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  158,711  km 
  paved:  69,992  km  (441  km  expressways) 
  unpaved:  88,719  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  1,622  km  (1988) 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,204  km  natural  gas  4,387  km  (1991) 
 
  Ports:  Budapest,  Dunaujvaros 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  10  cargo  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  46,121  GRT/61,613 
  DWT 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  78 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  9 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  14 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  34 
 
  Hungary:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  1,520,000  phones;  14.7  telephones/100  inhabitants 
  (1993);  14,213  telex  lines;  automatic  telephone  network  based  on 
  microwave  radio  relay  system;  608,000  telephones  on  order  12-15  year 
  wait  for  a  telephone;  49%  of  all  phones  are  in  Budapest  (1991) 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  and  Intersputnik  earth  stations 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  32,  FM  15,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  41  (Russian  repeaters  8) 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Hungary:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Ground  Forces,  Air  and  Air  Defense  Forces,  Border  Guard, 
  Territorial  Defense 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,639,860;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  2,105,632;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  86,298  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  66.5  billion  forints,  NA%  of  GDP  (1994  est.); 
  note  -  conversion  of  defense  expenditures  into  US  dollars  using  the 
  prevailing  exchange  rate  could  produce  misleading  results 
 
 
 




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