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finland

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finland


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Finland 
  n  :  republic  in  northern  Europe  [syn:  {Finland},  {Suomi}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Finland,  MN 
  Zip  code(s):  55603 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Finland 
 
  Finland:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Europe,  bordering  the  Baltic  Sea,  Gulf  of  Bothnia, 
  and  Gulf  of  Finland,  between  Sweden  and  Russia 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  337,030  sq  km 
  land  area:  305,470  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Montana 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  2,628  km  Norway  729  km  Sweden  586  km  Russia 
  1,313  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,126  km  (excludes  islands  and  coastal  indentations) 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  contiguous  zone:  6  nm 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  fishing  zone:  12  nm 
  territorial  sea:  4  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  cold  temperate;  potentially  subarctic,  but  comparatively  mild 
  because  of  moderating  influence  of  the  North  Atlantic  Current,  Baltic 
  Sea,  and  more  than  60,000  lakes 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  low  flat  to  rolling  plains  interspersed  with  lakes 
  and  low  hills 
 
  Natural  resources:  timber,  copper,  zinc,  iron  ore,  silver 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  8% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  0% 
  forest  and  woodland:  76% 
  other:  16% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  620  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution  from  manufacturing  and  power  plants 
  contributing  to  acid  rain;  water  pollution  from  industrial  wastes, 
  agricultural  chemicals;  habitat  loss  threatens  wildlife  populations 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Air 
  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air  Pollution-Sulphur  85,  Air 
  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds,  Antarctic  Treaty,  Biodiversity, 
  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental  Modification, 
  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Nuclear 
  Test  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83, 
  Wetlands,  Whaling;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Sulphur 
  94,  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  long  boundary  with  Russia;  Helsinki  is  northernmost  national 
  capital  on  European  continent;  population  concentrated  on  small 
  southwestern  coastal  plain 
 
  Finland:People 
 
  Population:  5,085,206  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  19%  (female  469,666;  male  491,484) 
  15-64  years:  67%  (female  1,683,371;  male  1,716,307) 
  65  years  and  over:  14%  (female  457,061;  male  267,317)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.3%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  12.22  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.77  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.59  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  5.2  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  76.22  years 
  male:  72.51  years 
  female:  80.11  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.79  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Finn(s) 
  adjective:  Finnish 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Finn,  Swede,  Lapp,  Gypsy,  Tatar 
 
  Religions:  Evangelical  Lutheran  89%,  Greek  Orthodox  1%,  none  9%,  other 
  1% 
 
  Languages:  Finnish  93.5%  (official),  Swedish  6.3%  (official),  small 
  Lapp-  and  Russian-speaking  minorities 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1980  est.) 
  total  population:  100% 
 
  Labor  force:  2.533  million 
  by  occupation:  public  services  30.4%,  industry  20.9%,  commerce  15.0%, 
  finance,  insurance,  and  business  services  10.2%,  agriculture  and 
  forestry  8.6%,  transport  and  communications  7.7%,  construction  7.2% 
 
  Finland:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Finland 
  conventional  short  form:  Finland 
  local  long  form:  Suomen  Tasavalta 
  local  short  form:  Suomi 
 
  Digraph:  FI 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Helsinki 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  12  provinces  (laanit,  singular  -  laani); 
  Ahvenanmaa,  Hame,  Keski-Suomi,  Kuopio  Kymi,  Lappi,  Mikkeli  Oulu, 
  Pohjois-Karjala,  Turku  ja  Pori,  Uusimaa  Vaasa 
 
  Independence:  6  December  1917  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  6  December  (1917) 
 
  Constitution:  17  July  1919 
 
  Legal  system:  civil  law  system  based  on  Swedish  law;  Supreme  Court  may 
  request  legislation  interpreting  or  modifying  laws;  accepts  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction,  with  reservations 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Martti  AHTISAARI  (since  1  March  1994); 
  election  last  held  31  January-6  February  1994  (next  to  be  held  January 
  2000);  results  -  Martti  AHTISAARI  54%,  Elisabeth  REHN  46% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Paavo  LIPPONEN  (since  13  April 
  1995);  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Sauli  NIINISTO  (since  13  April  1995) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  State  (Valtioneuvosto);  appointed  by  the 
  president,  responsible  to  Parliament 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Parliament  (Eduskunta):  elections  last  held  19  March  1995  (next  to  be 
  held  March  1999);  results  -  Social  Democratic  Party  28.3%,  Center 
  Party  19.9%,  National  Coalition  (Conservative)  Party  17.9%,  Leftist 
  Alliance  (Communist)  11.2%,  Swedish  People's  Party  5.1%,  Green  League 
  6.5%,  Ecology  Party  0.3%,  Rural  1.3%,  Finnish  Christian  League  3.0%, 
  Liberal  People's  Party  0.6%,  Young  Finns  2.8%;  seats  -  (200  total) 
  Social  Democratic  Party  63,  Center  Party  44,  National  Coalition 
  (Conservative)  Party  39,  Leftist  Alliance  (Communist)  22,  Swedish 
  People's  Party  11,  Green  League  9,  Ecology  Party  1,  Rural  1,  Finnish 
  Christian  League  7,  Young  Finns  2,  Aaland  Islands  1 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Korkein  Oikeus) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  government  coalition:  Social  Democratic  Party,  Paavo  LIPPONEN 
  National  Coalition  (conservative)  Party,  Sauli  NIINISTO  Leftist 
  Alliance  (Communist)  People's  Democratic  League  and  Democratic 
  Alternative,  Claes  ANDERSON;  Swedish  People's  Party,  (Johan)  Ole 
  NORRBACK  Green  League,  Pekka  HAAVISTO 
  other:  Center  Party,  Esko  AHO;  Finnish  Christian  League,  Toimi 
  KANKAANNIEMI  Rural  Party,  Tina  MAKELA  Liberal  People's  Party, 
  Tuulikki  UKKOLA  Greens  Ecological  Party  (EPV);  Young  Finns 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Finnish  Communist  Party-Unity, 
  Yrjo  HAKANEN  Constitutional  Rightist  Party;  Finnish  Pensioners  Party; 
  Communist  Workers  Party,  Timo  LAHDENMAKI 
 
  Member  of:  AfDB  AG  (observer),  AsDB  Australia  Group  BIS,  CBSS,  CCC, 
  CE  CERN,  EBRD,  ECE,  EFTA,  ESA  (associate),  EU  FAO,  G-  9,  GATT,  IADB, 
  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO, 
  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MTCR,  NACC 
  (observer),  NAM  (guest),  NC  NEA,  NIB,  NSG,  OAS  (observer),  OECD 
  OSCE,  PCA,  PFP,  UN  UNCTAD  UNDOF  UNESCO,  UNFICYP  UNHCR  UNIDO 
  UNIFIL,  UNIKOM  UNMOGIP  UNPROFOR  UNTSO  UPU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO, 
  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Jukka  VALTASAARI 
  chancery:  3301  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  298-5800 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  298-6030 
  consulate(s)  general:  Los  Angeles  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Derek  N.  SHEARER 
  embassy:  Itainen  Puistotie  14A,  FIN-00140,  Helsinki 
  mailing  address:  APO  AE  09723 
  telephone:  [358]  (0)  171931 
  FAX:  [358]  (0)  174681 
 
  Flag:  white  with  a  blue  cross  that  extends  to  the  edges  of  the  flag; 
  the  vertical  part  of  the  cross  is  shifted  to  the  hoist  side  in  the 
  style  of  the  DANNEBROG  (Danish  flag) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Finland  has  a  highly  industrialized,  largely  free  market 
  economy,  with  per  capita  output  two-thirds  of  the  US  figure.  Its  key 
  economic  sector  is  manufacturing  -  principally  the  wood,  metals,  and 
  engineering  industries.  Trade  is  important,  with  the  export  of  goods 
  representing  about  30%  of  GDP.  Except  for  timber  and  several  minerals, 
  Finland  depends  on  imports  of  raw  materials,  energy,  and  some 
  components  for  manufactured  goods.  Because  of  the  climate, 
  agricultural  development  is  limited  to  maintaining  self-sufficiency  in 
  basic  products.  Forestry,  an  important  export  earner,  provides  a 
  secondary  occupation  for  the  rural  population.  The  economy,  which 
  experienced  an  average  of  4.9%  annual  growth  between  1987  and  1989, 
  sank  into  deep  recession  in  1991  as  GDP  contracted  by  6.5%.  The 
  recession  -  which  continued  in  1992  with  GDP  contracting  by  4.1%  -  has 
  been  caused  by  economic  overheating,  depressed  foreign  markets,  and 
  the  dismantling  of  the  barter  system  between  Finland  and  the  former 
  Soviet  Union  under  which  Soviet  oil  and  gas  had  been  exchanged  for 
  Finnish  manufactured  goods.  The  Finnish  Government  has  proposed 
  efforts  to  increase  industrial  competitiveness  and  efficiency  by  an 
  increase  in  exports  to  Western  markets,  cuts  in  public  expenditures, 
  partial  privatization  of  state  enterprises,  and  changes  in  monetary 
  policy.  In  June  1991  Helsinki  had  tied  the  markka  to  the  European 
  Union's  EU  European  Currency  Unit  (ECU)  to  promote  stability. 
  Ongoing  speculation  resulting  from  a  lack  of  confidence  in  the 
  government's  policies  forced  Helsinki  to  devalue  the  markka  by  about 
  12%  in  November  1991  and  to  indefinitely  break  the  link  in  September 
  1992.  The  devaluations  have  boosted  the  competitiveness  of  Finnish 
  exports.  The  recession  bottomed  out  in  1993,  and  Finland  participated 
  in  the  general  European  upturn  of  1994.  Unemployment  probably  will 
  remain  a  serious  problem  during  the  next  few  years;  the  majority  of 
  Finnish  firms  face  a  weak  domestic  market  and  the  troubled  German  and 
  Swedish  export  markets.  The  Finns  voted  in  an  October  1994  referendum 
  to  enter  the  EU  and  Finland  officially  joined  the  Union  on  1  January 
  1995.  Increasing  integration  with  Western  Europe  will  dominate  the 
  economic  picture  over  the  next  few  years. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $81.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  3.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $16,140  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  2.1%  (1992) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  22%  (1993) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $21.7  billion 
  expenditures:  $31.7  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (1993  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $23.4  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  paper  and  pulp,  machinery,  chemicals,  metals,  timber 
  partners:  EC  53.2%  (Germany  15.6%,  UK  10.7%),  EFTA  19.5%  (Sweden 
  12.8%),  US  5.9%,  Japan  1.3%,  Russia  2.8%  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $18  billion  (c.i.f.,  1993) 
  commodities:  foodstuffs,  petroleum  and  petroleum  products,  chemicals, 
  transport  equipment,  iron  and  steel,  machinery,  textile  yarn  and 
  fabrics,  fodder  grains 
  partners:  EC  47.2%  (Germany  16.9%,  UK  8.7%),  EFTA  19.0%  (Sweden 
  11.7%),  US  6.1%,  Japan  5.5%,  Russia  7.1%  (1992) 
 
  External  debt:  $30  billion  (December  1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  5%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  28%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  13,360,000  kW 
  production:  58  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  12,196  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  metal  products,  shipbuilding,  forestry  and  wood  processing 
  (pulp,  paper),  copper  refining,  foodstuffs,  chemicals,  textiles, 
  clothing 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  7%  of  GDP  (including  forestry);  livestock 
  production,  especially  dairy  cattle,  predominates;  main  crops  - 
  cereals,  sugar  beets,  potatoes;  85%  self-sufficient,  but  short  of 
  foodgrains  and  fodder  grains;  annual  fish  catch  about  160,000  metric 
  tons 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  Latin  American  cocaine  for  the 
  West  European  market 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  donor:  ODA  and  OOF  commitments  (1970-89),  $2.7  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  markka  (FMk)  or  Finmark  =  100  pennia 
 
  Exchange  rates:  markkaa  (FMk)  per  US$1  -  4.7358  (January  1995),  5.2235 
  (1994),  5.7123  (1993),  4.4794  (1992),  4.0440  (1991),  3.8235  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Finland:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  5,864  km 
  broad  gauge:  5,864  km  1.524-m  gauge  (1,710  km  electrified;  480  km 
  multiple  track) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  76,755  km 
  paved:  bituminous  concrete,  bituminous  treated  soil  47,588  km  (318  km 
  of  expressways) 
  unpaved:  gravel  29,167  km  (1992) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  6,675  km  total  (including  Saimaa  Canal);  3,700  km 
  suitable  for  steamers 
 
  Pipelines:  natural  gas  580  km 
 
  Ports:  Hamina,  Helsinki,  Kokkola  Kotka,  Loviisa  Oulu,  Pori,  Rauma, 
  Turku,  Uusikaupunki  Varkaus 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  93  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  1,050,270  GRT/1,080,150 
  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  7,  cargo  20,  chemical  tanker  5,  liquefied  gas 
  tanker  3,  oil  tanker  12,  passenger  3,  refrigerated  cargo  1, 
  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  31,  short-sea  passenger  10,  vehicle  carrier  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  159 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  23 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  13 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  21 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  94 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
 
  Finland:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  3,140,000  telephones;  good  service  from  cable  and 
  microwave  radio  relay  network 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  cable  and  microwave  radio  relay 
  international:  1  submarine  cable;  INTELSAT  satellite  transmission 
  service  via  Swedish  earth  station  and  a  receive-only  INTELSAT  earth 
  station  near  Helsinki  for  TV  programs 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  6,  FM  105,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  235 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Finland:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Frontier  Guard  (includes  Sea  Guard) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,318,231;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,083,749;  males  reach  military  age  (17)  annually 
  33,085  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $1.86  billion,  about 
  1.9%  of  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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