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bolivia

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bolivia


  3  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Bolivia 
  n  1:  a  Republic  in  western  South  America;  Simon  Bolivar  founded 
  Bolivia  in  1825  after  winning  independence  from  Spain 
  [syn:  {Bolivia}] 
  2:  a  form  of  canasta  in  which  sequences  can  be  melded 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Bolivia,  IL 
  Zip  code(s):  62545 
  Bolivia,  NC  (town,  FIPS  6820) 
  Location:  34.07069  N,  78.14683  W 
  Population  (1990):  228  (100  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.7  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  28422 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Bolivia 
 
  Bolivia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Central  South  America,  southwest  of  Brazil 
 
  Map  references:  South  America 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1,098,580  sq  km 
  land  area:  1,084,390  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  less  than  three  times  the  size  of  Montana 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  6,743  km  Argentina  832  km  Brazil  3,400  km 
  Chile  861  km  Paraguay  750  km  Peru  900  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  has  wanted  a  sovereign  corridor  to  the  South 
  Pacific  Ocean  since  the  Atacama  area  was  lost  to  Chile  in  1884; 
  dispute  with  Chile  over  Rio  Lauca  water  rights 
 
  Climate:  varies  with  altitude;  humid  and  tropical  to  cold  and  semiarid 
 
  Terrain:  rugged  Andes  Mountains  with  a  highland  plateau  (Altiplano), 
  hills,  lowland  plains  of  the  Amazon  Basin 
 
  Natural  resources:  tin,  natural  gas,  petroleum,  zinc,  tungsten, 
  antimony,  silver,  iron,  lead,  gold,  timber 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  3% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  25% 
  forest  and  woodland:  52% 
  other:  20% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  1,650  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  the  clearing  of  land  for  agricultural  purposes  and  the 
  international  demand  for  tropical  timber  are  contributing  to 
  deforestation;  soil  erosion  from  overgrazing  and  poor  cultivation 
  methods  (including  slash-and-burn  agriculture);  desertification  loss 
  of  biodiversity;  industrial  pollution  of  water  supplies  used  for 
  drinking  and  irrigation 
  natural  hazards:  cold,  thin  air  of  high  plateau  is  obstacle  to 
  efficient  fuel  combustion,  as  well  as  to  physical  activity  by  those 
  unaccustomed  to  it  from  birth;  flooding  in  the  northeast  (March  to 
  April) 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Endangered  Species,  Nuclear  Test  Ban,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification  Environmental 
  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Law  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine 
  Life  Conservation,  Ozone  Layer  Protection 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  shares  control  of  Lago  Titicaca  world's  highest 
  navigable  lake  (elevation  3,805  m),  with  Peru 
 
  Bolivia:People 
 
  Population:  7,896,254  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  39%  (female  1,542,931;  male  1,565,624) 
  15-64  years:  57%  (female  2,276,308;  male  2,188,100) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  174,419;  male  148,872)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.25%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  31.61  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.12  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -1.01  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  70.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  63.85  years 
  male:  61.39  years 
  female:  66.43  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  4.1  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Bolivian(s) 
  adjective:  Bolivian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Quechua  30%,  Aymara  25%,  mestizo  (mixed  European  and 
  Indian  ancestry)  25%-30%,  European  5%-15% 
 
  Religions:  Roman  Catholic  95%,  Protestant  (Evangelical  Methodist) 
 
  Languages:  Spanish  (official),  Quechua  (official),  Aymara  (official) 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1992) 
  total  population:  80% 
  male:  88% 
  female:  72% 
 
  Labor  force:  3.54  million 
  by  occupation:  agriculture  NA  services  and  utilities  20%, 
  manufacturing,  mining  and  construction  7%  (1993) 
 
  Bolivia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Bolivia 
  conventional  short  form:  Bolivia 
  local  long  form:  Republica  de  Bolivia 
  local  short  form:  Bolivia 
 
  Digraph:  BL 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  La  Paz  (seat  of  government);  Sucre  (legal  capital  and  seat  of 
  judiciary) 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  9  departments  (departamentos,  singular  - 
  departamento);  Chuquisaca  Cochabamba  Beni,  La  Paz,  Oruro,  Pando, 
  Potosi,  Santa  Cruz,  Tarija 
 
  Independence:  6  August  1825  (from  Spain) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  6  August  (1825) 
 
  Constitution:  2  February  1967 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  Spanish  law  and  Code  Napoleon;  has  not  accepted 
  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age,  universal  and  compulsory  (married);  21 
  years  of  age,  universal  and  compulsory  (single) 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state  and  head  of  government:  President  Gonzalo  SANCHEZ  DE 
  LOZADA  Bustamente  (since  6  August  1993);  Vice  President  Victor  Hugo 
  CARDENAS  Conde  (since  6  August  1993);  election  last  held  6  June  1993 
  (next  to  be  held  May  1997);  results  -  Gonzalo  SANCHEZ  DE  LOZADA  (MNR) 
  34%,  Hugo  BANZER  Suarez  (ADN/MIR  alliance)  20%,  Carlos  PALENQUE  Aviles 
  (CONDEPA)  14%,  Max  FERNANDEZ  Rojas  (UCS)  13%,  Antonio  ARANIBAR  Quiroga 
  (MBL)  5%;  no  candidate  received  a  majority  of  the  popular  vote; 
  Gonzalo  SANCHEZ  DE  LOZADA  won  a  congressional  runoff  election  on  4 
  August  1993  after  forming  a  coalition  with  Max  FERNANDEZ  and  Antonio 
  ARANIBAR  FERNANDEZ  left  the  coalition  in  1994 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president  from  panel  proposed  by 
  the  Senate 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  National  Congress  (Congreso  Nacional) 
  Chamber  of  Deputies  (Camara  de  Diputados):  elections  last  held  6  June 
  1993  (next  to  be  held  May  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party 
  NA  seats  -  (130  total)  MNR  52,  UCS  20,  ADN  17,  MIR  17,  CONDEPA  13, 
  MBL  7,  ARBOL  1,  ASD  1,  EJE  1,  PCD  1 
  Chamber  of  Senators  (Camara  de  Senadores):  elections  last  held  6  June 
  1993  (next  to  be  held  May  1997);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party 
  NA  seats  -  (27  total)  MNR  17,  ADN  4,  MIR  4,  CONDEPA  1,  UCS  1 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  (Corte  Suprema) 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders: 
  Left  parties:  Free  Bolivia  Movement  (MBL),  Antonio  ARANIBAR  April  9 
  Revolutionary  Vanguard  (VR-9),  Carlos  SERRATE;  Alternative  of 
  Democratic  Socialism  (ASD),  Jerjes  JUSTIANO  Revolutionary  Front  of 
  the  Left  (FRI),  Oscar  ZAMORA;  Bolivian  Socialist  Falange  (FSB); 
  Socialist  Unzaguista  Movement  (MAS);  Socialist  Party  One  (PS-1); 
  Bolivian  Communist  Party  (PCB) 
  Center-Left  parties:  Nationalist  Revolutionary  Movement  (MNR),  Gonzalo 
  SANCHEZ  DE  LOZADA  Movement  of  the  Revolutionary  Left  (MIR),  Jaime  PAZ 
  Zamora,  Oscar  EID;  Christian  Democrat  (PCD),  Jorge  AGREDA 
  Center-Right  party:  Nationalist  Democratic  Action  (ADN),  Jorge 
  LANDIVAR  Hugo  BANZER 
  populist  parties:  Civic  Solidarity  Union  (UCS),  Max  FERNANDEZ  Rojas 
  Conscience  of  the  Fatherland  (CONDEPA),  Carlos  PALENQUE  Aviles; 
  Popular  Patriotic  Movement  (MPP),  Julio  MANTILLA;  Unity  and  Progress 
  Movement  (MUP),  Ivo  KULJIS 
  Evangelical:  Bolivian  Renovating  Alliance  (ARBOL),  Hugo  VILLEGAS 
  indigenous:  Tupac  Katari  Revolutionary  Liberation  Movement  (MRTK-L), 
  Victor  Hugo  CARDENAS  Conde;  Patriotic  Axis  of  Convergence  (EJE-P), 
  Ramiro  BARRANCHEA  National  Katarista  Movement  (MKN),  Fernando  UNTOJA 
 
  Member  of:  AG  ECLAC  FAO,  G-11,  G-77,  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO, 
  ICRM,  IDA,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC, 
  IOM,  ITU,  LAES,  LAIA,  NAM,  OAS,  OPANAL  PCA,  RG  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO, 
  UNIDO  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Andres  PETRICEVIC  Raznatovic 
  chancery:  3014  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  483-4410  through  4412 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  328-3712 
  consulate(s)  general:  Miami,  New  York,  and  San  Francisco 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Curt  Warren  KAMMAN 
  embassy:  Avenida  Arce  2780,  San  Jorge,  La  Paz 
  mailing  address:  P.  O.  Box  425,  La  Paz;  APO  AA  34032 
  telephone:  [591]  (2)  430251 
  FAX:  [591]  (2)  4339000 
 
  Flag:  three  equal  horizontal  bands  of  red  (top),  yellow,  and  green 
  with  the  coat  of  arms  centered  on  the  yellow  band;  similar  to  the  flag 
  of  Ghana,  which  has  a  large  black  five-pointed  star  centered  in  the 
  yellow  band 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  With  its  long  history  of  semifeudal  social  controls, 
  dependence  on  volatile  prices  for  its  mineral  exports,  and  bouts  of 
  hyperinflation  Bolivia  has  remained  one  of  the  poorest  and  least 
  developed  Latin  American  countries.  However,  Bolivia  has  experienced 
  generally  improving  economic  conditions  since  the  PAZ  Estenssoro 
  administration  (1985-89)  introduced  market-oriented  policies  which 
  reduced  inflation  from  11,700%  in  1985  to  about  20%  in  1988.  PAZ 
  Estenssoro  was  followed  as  President  by  Jaime  PAZ  Zamora  (1989-93)  who 
  continued  the  free-market  policies  of  his  predecessor,  despite 
  opposition  from  his  own  party  and  from  Bolivia's  once  powerful  labor 
  movement.  By  maintaining  fiscal  discipline,  PAZ  Zamora  helped  reduce 
  inflation  to  9.3%  in  1993,  while  GDP  grew  by  an  annual  average  of 
  3.25%  during  his  tenure.  Inaugurated  in  August  1993,  President  SANCHEZ 
  DE  LOZADA  has  vowed  to  advance  the  market-oriented  economic  reforms  he 
  helped  launch  as  PAZ  Estenssoro's  planning  minister.  His  successes  so 
  far  have  included  an  inflation  rate  that  continues  to  decrease  -  the 
  1994  rate  of  8.5%  was  the  lowest  in  ten  years  -  the  signing  of  a  free 
  trade  agreement  with  Mexico,  and  progress  on  his  unique  privatization 
  plan  The  main  privatization  bill  was  passed  by  the  Bolivian 
  legislature  in  late  March  1994.  Related  laws  -  one  that  establishes 
  SIRESE,  the  regulatory  agency  that  will  oversee  the  privatizations 
  and  another  that  outlines  the  rules  for  privatization  in  the 
  electricity  sector  -  were  approved  later  in  the  year. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $18.3  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  4.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $2,370  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  8.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  6.2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $3.75  billion 
  expenditures:  $3.75  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $556.2 
  million  (1995  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $1.1  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  metals  39%,  natural  gas  9%,  soybeans  11%,  jewelry  11%, 
  wood  8% 
  partners:  US  26%,  Argentina  15%  (1993  est.) 
 
  Imports:  $1.21  billion  (c.i.f.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  capital  goods  48%,  chemicals  11%,  petroleum  5%,  food  5% 
  (1993  est.) 
  partners:  US  24%,  Argentina  13%,  Brazil  11%,  Japan  11%  (1993  est.) 
 
  External  debt:  $4.2  billion  (January  1995) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  756,200  kW 
  production:  2.116  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  367  kWh  (1994) 
 
  Industries:  mining,  smelting,  petroleum,  food  and  beverage,  tobacco, 
  handicrafts,  clothing;  illicit  drug  industry  reportedly  produces  15% 
  of  its  revenues 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  21%  of  GDP  (including  forestry  and 
  fisheries);  principal  commodities  -  coffee,  coca,  cotton,  corn, 
  sugarcane,  rice,  potatoes,  timber;  self-sufficient  in  food 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  world's  second-largest  producer  of  coca  (after  Peru) 
  with  an  estimated  48,100  hectares  under  cultivation  in  1994;  voluntary 
  and  forced  eradication  programs  unable  to  prevent  production  from 
  rising  to  89,800  metric  tons  in  1994  from  84,400  tons  in  1993; 
  government  considers  all  but  12,000  hectares  illicit;  intermediate 
  coca  products  and  cocaine  exported  to  or  through  Colombia  and  Brazil 
  to  the  US  and  other  international  drug  markets;  alternative  crop 
  program  aims  to  reduce  illicit  coca  cultivation 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $990  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $2.025  billion;  Communist  countries  (1970-89),  $340  million 
 
  Currency:  1  boliviano  ($B)  =  100  centavos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  bolivianos  ($B)  per  US$1  -  4.72  (January  1995),  4.6205 
  (1994),  4.2651  (1993),  3.9005  (1992),  3.5806  (1991),  3.1727  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Bolivia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  3,684  km  (single  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  3,652  km  1.000-m  gauge;  32  km  0.760-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  42,815  km 
  paved:  1,865  km 
  unpaved:  gravel  12,000  km  improved/unimproved  earth  28,950  km 
 
  Inland  waterways:  10,000  km  of  commercially  navigable  waterways 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  1,800  km  petroleum  products  580  km  natural  gas 
  1,495  km 
 
  Ports:  none;  however,  Bolivia  has  free  port  privileges  in  the  maritime 
  ports  of  Argentina,  Brazil,  Chile,  and  Paraguay 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  1  cargo  ship  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  4,214  GRT/6,390  DWT 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  1,382 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  1,016 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  77 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  275 
 
  Bolivia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  about  150,000  telephones;  about  2.0  telephones/100 
  persons;  new  subscribers  face  bureaucratic  difficulties;  most 
  telephones  in  La  Paz  and  other  cities;  microwave  radio  relay  system 
  being  expanded;  improved  international  services 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay  system 
  international:  1  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  129,  FM  0,  shortwave  68 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  43 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Bolivia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army  (Ejercito  Boliviano),  Navy  (Fuerza  Naval  Boliviana, 
  includes  Marines),  Air  Force  (Fuerza  Aerea  Boliviana),  National  Police 
  Force  (Policia  Nacional  de  Bolivia) 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,885,485;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,226,218;  males  reach  military  age  (19)  annually 
  81,065  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $134  million;  1.9%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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