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georgia

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georgia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Georgia 
  n  1:  a  state  in  southeastern  United  States;  one  of  the 
  Confederate  states  during  the  American  Civil  War  [syn:  {Georgia}, 
  {Empire  State  of  the  South},  {Peach  State}] 
  2:  one  of  the  British  colonies  that  formed  the  United  States 
  [syn:  {Georgia}] 
  3:  a  republic  in  Asia  Minor  on  the  Black  Sea  separated  from 
  Russia  by  the  Caucasus  mountains;  a  provisional  military 
  government;  formerly  an  Asian  Soviet  [syn:  {Georgia},  {Sakartvelo}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Georgia 
 
  Note--Georgia  has  been  beset  by  ethnic  and  civil  strife  since 
  independence.  In  late  1991,  the  country's  first  elected  president, 
  Zviad  GAMSAKHURDIA  was  ousted  in  an  armed  coup.  In  October  1993, 
  GAMSAKHURDIA  and  his  supporters  sponsored  a  failed  attempt  to  retake 
  power  from  the  current  government  led  by  former  Soviet  Foreign 
  Minister  Eduard  SHEVARDNADZE  The  Georgian  government  has  also  faced 
  armed  separatist  conflicts  in  the  Abkhazia  and  South  Ossetia  regions. 
  A  cease-fire  went  into  effect  in  South  Ossetia  in  June  1992  and  a 
  joint  Georgian-Ossetian-Russian  peacekeeping  force  has  been  in  place 
  since  that  time.  Georgian  forces  were  driven  out  of  the  Abkhaz  region 
  in  September  1993  after  a  yearlong  war  with  Abkhaz  separatists.  Nearly 
  200,000  Georgian  refugees  have  since  fled  Abkhazia,  adding 
  substantially  to  the  estimated  100,000  internally  displaced  persons 
  already  in  Georgia.  Russian  peacekeepers  are  deployed  along  the  border 
  of  Abkhazia  and  the  rest  of  Georgia. 
 
  Georgia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southwestern  Asia,  bordering  the  Black  Sea,  between  Turkey 
  and  Russia 
 
  Map  references:  Middle  East 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  69,700  sq  km 
  land  area:  69,700  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  South  Carolina 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,461  km  Armenia  164  km  Azerbaijan  322  km 
  Russia  723  km  Turkey  252  km 
 
  Coastline:  310  km 
 
  Maritime  claims:  NA 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  warm  and  pleasant;  Mediterranean-like  on  Black  Sea  coast 
 
  Terrain:  largely  mountainous  with  Great  Caucasus  Mountains  in  the 
  north  and  Lesser  Caucasus  Mountains  in  the  south;  Kolkhida  Lowland 
  opens  to  the  Black  Sea  in  the  west;  Mtkvari  River  Basin  in  the  east; 
  good  soils  in  river  valley  flood  plains,  foothills  of  Kolkhida  Lowland 
 
  Natural  resources:  forest  lands,  hydropower  manganese  deposits,  iron 
  ores,  copper,  minor  coal  and  oil  deposits;  coastal  climate  and  soils 
  allow  for  important  tea  and  citrus  growth 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  11% 
  permanent  crops:  4% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  29% 
  forest  and  woodland:  38% 
  other:  18% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  4,660  sq  km  (1990) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution,  particularly  in  Rust'avi;  heavy 
  pollution  of  Mtkvari  River  and  the  Black  Sea;  inadequate  supplies  of 
  potable  water;  soil  pollution  from  toxic  chemicals 
  natural  hazards:  NA 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Ship  Pollution;  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Desertification 
 
  Georgia:People 
 
  Population:  5,725,972  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  24%  (female  674,331;  male  707,355) 
  15-64  years:  64%  (female  1,894,681;  male  1,791,847) 
  65  years  and  over:  12%  (female  410,703;  male  247,055)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.77%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  15.77  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  8.73  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0.66  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  22.6  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  73.1  years 
  male:  69.43  years 
  female:  76.95  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.16  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Georgian(s) 
  adjective:  Georgian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Georgian  70.1%,  Armenian  8.1%,  Russian  6.3%,  Azeri 
  5.7%,  Ossetian  3%,  Abkhaz  1.8%,  other  5% 
 
  Religions:  Georgian  Orthodox  65%,  Russian  Orthodox  10%,  Muslim  11%, 
  Armenian  Orthodox  8%,  unknown  6% 
 
  Languages:  Armenian  7%,  Azeri  6%,  Georgian  71%  (official),  Russian  9%, 
  other  7% 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1989) 
  total  population:  99% 
  male:  100% 
  female:  98% 
 
  Labor  force:  2.763  million 
  by  occupation:  industry  and  construction  31%,  agriculture  and  forestry 
  25%,  other  44%  (1990) 
 
  Georgia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Republic  of  Georgia 
  conventional  short  form:  Georgia 
  local  long  form:  Sak'art'velos  Respublika 
  local  short  form:  Sak'art'velo 
  former:  Georgian  Soviet  Socialist  Republic 
 
  Digraph:  GG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  T'bilisi 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  2  autonomous  republics  (avtomnoy  respubliki 
  singular  -  avtom  respublika);  Abkhazia  (Sokhumi),  Ajaria  (Bat'umi) 
  note:  the  administrative  centers  of  the  autonomous  republics  are 
  included  in  parentheses;  there  are  no  oblasts  -  the  rayons  around 
  T'bilisi  are  under  direct  republic  jurisdiction 
 
  Independence:  9  April  1991  (from  Soviet  Union) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  26  May  (1991) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  21  February  1921;  currently  amending 
  constitution  for  Parliamentary  and  popular  review  by  late  1995 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  civil  law  system 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  Chairman  of  Parliament  Eduard  Amvrosiyevich 
  SHEVARDNADZE  (Chairman  of  the  Government  Council  since  10  March  1992; 
  elected  Chairman  of  Parliament  in  11  October  1992;  note  -  the 
  Government  Council  has  since  been  disbanded);  election  last  held  11 
  October  1992  (next  to  be  held  October  1995);  results  -  Eduard 
  SHEVARDNADZE  95% 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Otar  PATSATSIA  (since  September 
  1993);  Deputy  Prime  Ministers  Avtandil  MARGIANI  Zurab  KERVALISHVILI 
  (since  25  November  1992),  Tamaz  NADAREISHVILI  (since  September  1993), 
  Temur  BASILIA  (since  17  March  1994),  Bakur  GULA  (since  NA) 
  cabinet:  Council  of  Ministers 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Georgian  Parliament  (Supreme  Soviet):  elections  last  held  11  October 
  1992  (next  to  be  held  October  1995);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by 
  party  NA  seats  -  (225  total)  number  of  seats  by  party  NA 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Citizens  Union  (CU),  Eduard 
  SHEVARDNADZE  Zurab  SHVANIA  general  secretary;  National  Democratic 
  Party  (NDP),  Georgi  (Gia)  CHANTURIA  Ivane  GIORGADZE  United 
  Republican  Party,  umbrella  organization  for  parties  including  the  GPF 
  and  the  Charter  1991  Party,  cochairmen  Bakhtand  DZABIRADZE  Notar 
  NATADZE  and  Theodor  PAATASHVILI  Georgian  Popular  Front  (GPF),  Nodar 
  NATADZE  chairman;  Charter  1991  Party,  Thedor  PAATASHVILI  Georgian 
  Social  Democratic  Party  (GSDP),  Guram  MUCHAIDZE  secretary  general; 
  National  Reconstruction  and  Rebirth  of  Georgia  Union,  Valerian 
  ADVADZE  Christian  Democratic  Union  (CDU),  Irakli  SHENGELAYA 
  Democratic  Georgia  Union  (DGU),  El'dar  SHENGELAYA  National 
  Independence  Party  (NIP),  Irakliy  TSERETELI  chairman;  Georgian 
  Monarchists'  Party  (GMP),  Temur  ZHORZHOLIANI  Green  Party,  Zurab 
  ZHVANIA  Republican  Party  (RP),  Ivliane  KHAINDRAVA  Workers'  Union  of 
  Georgia  (WUG),  Vakhtang  GABUNIA  Agrarian  Party  of  Georgia  (APG),  Roin 
  LIPARTELIANI  Choice  Society  (Archevani),  Jaba  IOSELIANI  chairman; 
  Georgian  Workers  Communist  Party,  Panteleimon  GIORGADZE  chairman; 
  National  Liberation  Front,  Tengiz  SIGULA,  chairman 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  supporters  of  ousted  President 
  Zviad  GAMSAKHURDIA  (deceased  1  January  1994)  boycotted  the  October 
  elections  and  remain  a  source  of  opposition 
 
  Member  of:  BSEC,  CCC,  CIS,  EBRD,  ECE,  IBRD,  ICAO,  IDA,  ILO,  IMF,  IMO, 
  INMARSAT  INTERPOL,  IOC,  IOM  (observer),  ITU,  NACC,  OSCE,  PFP,  UN 
  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Tedo  JAPARIDZE 
  chancery:  (temporary)  Suite  424,  1511  K  Street  NW  Washington,  DC 
  20005 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  393-6060,  5959 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Kent  N.  BROWN 
  embassy:  #25  Antoneli  Street,  T'bilisi  380026 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [7]  (8832)  98-99-67,  93-38-03 
  FAX:  [7]  (8832)  93-37-59 
 
  Flag:  maroon  field  with  small  rectangle  in  upper  hoist  side  corner; 
  rectangle  divided  horizontally  with  black  on  top  white  below 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Georgia's  economy  has  traditionally  revolved  around  Black 
  Sea  tourism;  cultivation  of  citrus  fruits,  tea,  and  grapes;  mining  of 
  manganese  and  copper;  and  a  small  industrial  sector  producing  wine, 
  metals,  machinery,  chemicals,  and  textiles.  The  country  imports  the 
  bulk  of  its  energy  needs  including  natural  gas  and  oil  products.  Its 
  only  sizable  domestic  energy  resource  is  hydropower  Since  1990, 
  widespread  conflicts,  e.g.,  in  Abkhazia,  South  Ossetia  and 
  Mingreliya  have  severely  aggravated  the  economic  crisis  resulting 
  from  the  disintegration  of  the  Soviet  command  economy  in  December 
  1991.  Throughout  1993  and  1994,  much  of  industry  was  functioning  at 
  only  20%  of  capacity;  heavy  disruptions  in  agricultural  cultivation 
  were  reported;  and  tourism  was  shut  down  The  country  is  precariously 
  dependent  on  US  and  EU  humanitarian  grain  shipments,  as  most  other 
  foods  are  priced  beyond  reach  of  the  average  citizen.  Georgia  is  also 
  suffering  from  an  acute  energy  crisis,  as  it  is  having  problems  paying 
  for  even  minimal  imports.  Georgia  is  pinning  its  hopes  for  recovery  on 
  reestablishing  trade  ties  with  Russia  and  on  developing  international 
  transportation  through  the  key  Black  Sea  ports  of  P'ot'i  and  Bat'umi. 
  The  government  began  a  tenuous  program  in  1994  aiming  to  stabilize 
  prices  and  reduce  large  consumer  subsidies. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $6  billion  (1994 
  estimate  as  extrapolated  from  World  Bank  estimate  for  1992) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  -30%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,060  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  40.5%  per  month  (2nd  half  1993  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  officially  less  than  5%  but  real  unemployment  may 
  be  more  than  20%,  with  even  larger  numbers  of  underemployed  workers 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
 
  Exports:  $NA 
  commodities:  citrus  fruits,  tea,  wine,  other  agricultural  products; 
  diverse  types  of  machinery;  ferrous  and  nonferrous  metals;  textiles; 
  chemicals;  fuel  re-exports 
  partners:  Russia,  Turkey,  Armenia,  Azerbaijan  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $NA 
  commodities:  fuel,  grain  and  other  foods,  machinery  and  parts 
  transport  equipment 
  partners:  Russia,  Azerbaijan,  Turkey  (1993);  note  -  EU  and  US  sent 
  humanitarian  food  shipments 
 
  External  debt:  NA  (T'bilisi  owes  about  $400  million  to  Turkmenistan 
  for  natural  gas  as  of  January  1995) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -27%  (1993);  accounts  for  36%  of 
  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  4,410,000  kW 
  production:  9.1  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,526  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  heavy  industrial  products  include  raw  steel,  rolled  steel, 
  airplanes;  machine  tools,  foundry  equipment,  electric  locomotives, 
  tower  cranes,  electric  welding  equipment,  machinery  for  food 
  preparation  and  meat  packing,  electric  motors,  process  control 
  equipment,  instruments;  trucks,  tractors,  and  other  farm  machinery; 
  light  industrial  products,  including  cloth,  hosiery,  and  shoes; 
  chemicals;  wood-working  industries;  the  most  important  food  industry 
  is  wine 
 
  Agriculture:  accounted  for  97%  of  former  USSR  citrus  fruits  and  93%  of 
  former  USSR  tea;  important  producer  of  grapes;  also  cultivates 
  vegetables  and  potatoes;  dependent  on  imports  for  grain,  dairy 
  products,  sugar;  small  livestock  sector 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  cultivator  of  cannabis  and  opium  poppy;  mostly 
  for  domestic  consumption;  used  as  transshipment  point  for  illicit 
  drugs  to  Western  Europe 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  heavily  dependent  on  US  and  EU  for  humanitarian  grain 
  shipments;  EC  granted  around  $70  million  in  trade  credits  in  1992  and 
  another  $40  million  in  1993;  Turkey  granted  $50  million  in  1993; 
  smaller  scale  credits  granted  by  Russia  and  China 
 
  Currency:  coupons  introduced  in  April  1993  to  be  followed  by 
  introduction  of  the  lari  at  undetermined  future  date;  in  July  1993  use 
  of  the  Russian  ruble  was  banned 
 
  Exchange  rates:  coupons  per  $US1  -  1,280,000  (end  December  1994) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Georgia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  1,570  km  in  common  carrier  service;  does  not  include  industrial 
  lines 
  broad  gauge:  1,570  km  1.520-m  gauge  (1990) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  33,900  km 
  paved  and  graveled:  29,500  km 
  unpaved:  earth  4,400  km  (1990) 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  370  km  refined  products  300  km  natural  gas  440 
  km  (1992) 
 
  Ports:  Bat'umi,  P'ot'i,  Sokhumi 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  32  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  419,416  GRT/640,897  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  11,  cargo  1,  oil  tanker  19,  short-sea  passenger  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  28 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  4 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  6 
 
  Note:  transportation  network  is  in  poor  condition  and  disrupted  by 
  ethnic  conflict,  criminal  activities,  and  fuel  shortages;  network 
  lacks  maintenance  and  repair 
 
  Georgia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  672,000  telephones  (mid-1993);  117  telephones/1,000 
  persons;  poor  telephone  service;  339,000  unsatisfied  applications  for 
  telephones  (December  1990) 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  links  via  landline  to  CIS  members  and  Turkey; 
  low-capacity  satellite  link  and  leased  international  connections  via 
  the  Moscow  international  gateway  switch  with  other  countries; 
  international  electronic  mail  and  telex  service  available 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  NA  FM  NA  shortwave  NA 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  NA 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Georgia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  Interior  Ministry  Troops,  Border 
  Guards/National  Guard 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  1,385,593;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  1,095,835;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually 
  42,207  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $85  million,  NA%  of 
  GDP  (1992) 
 
  Note:  Georgian  forces  are  poorly  organized  and  not  fully  under  the 
  government's  control 
 
 
 




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