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jamaica

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jamaica


  5  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Jamaica  \Ja*mai"ca\,  n. 
  One  of  the  West  India  is  islands. 
 
  {Jamaica  ginger},  a  variety  of  ginger,  called  also  {white 
  ginger},  prepared  in  Jamaica  from  the  best  roots,  which 
  are  deprived  of  their  epidermis  and  dried  separately. 
 
  {Jamaica  pepper},  allspice. 
 
  {Jamaica  rose}  (Bot.),  a  West  Indian  melastomaceous  shrub 
  ({Blakea  trinervis}),  with  showy  pink  flowers. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Nutmeg  \Nut"meg\,  n.  [OE.  notemuge  note  nut  +  OF  muge  musk,  of 
  the  same  origin  as  E.  musk;  cf  OF  noix  muguette  nutmeg,  F. 
  noix  muscade.  See  {Nut},  and  {Musk}.]  (Bot.) 
  The  kernel  of  the  fruit  of  the  nutmeg  tree  ({Myristica 
  fragrans}),  a  native  of  the  Molucca  Islands,  but  cultivated 
  elsewhere  in  the  tropics. 
 
  Note:  This  fruit  is  a  nearly  spherical  drupe,  of  the  size  of 
  a  pear,  of  a  yellowish  color  without  and  almost  white 
  within.  This  opens  into  two  nearly  equal  longitudinal 
  valves,  inclosing  the  nut  surrounded  by  its  aril,  which 
  is  mace  The  nutmeg  is  an  aromatic,  very  grateful  to  the 
  taste  and  smell,  and  much  used  in  cookery.  Other 
  species  of  {Myristica}  yield  nutmegs  of  inferior 
  quality. 
 
  {American},  {Calabash},  or  {Jamaica},  {nutmeg},  the  fruit  of 
  a  tropical  shrub  ({Monodora  Myristica}).  It  is  about  the 
  size  of  an  orange,  and  contains  many  aromatic  seeds 
  imbedded  in  pulp. 
 
  {Brazilian  nutmeg},  the  fruit  of  a  lauraceous  tree, 
  {Cryptocarya  moschata}. 
 
  {California  nutmeg},  tree  of  the  Yew  family  ({Torreya 
  Californica}),  growing  in  the  Western  United  States,  and 
  having  a  seed  which  resembles  a  nutmeg  in  appearance,  but 
  is  strongly  impregnated  with  turpentine. 
 
  {Clove  nutmeg},  the  {Ravensara  aromatica},  a  laura  ceous  tree 
  of  Madagascar.  The  foliage  is  used  as  a  spice,  but  the 
  seed  is  acrid  and  caustic. 
 
  {Jamaica  nutmeg}.  See  American  nutmeg  (above). 
 
  {Nutmeg  bird}  (Zo["o]l.),  an  Indian  finch  ({Munia 
  punctularia}). 
 
  {Nutmeg  butter},  a  solid  oil  extracted  from  the  nutmeg  by 
  expression. 
 
  {Nutmeg  flower}  (Bot.),  a  ranunculaceous  herb  ({Nigella 
  sativa})  with  small  black  aromatic  seeds,  which  are  used 
  medicinally  and  for  excluding  moths  from  furs  and 
  clothing. 
 
  {Nutmeg  liver}  (Med.),  a  name  applied  to  the  liver,  when  as 
  the  result  of  heart  or  lung  disease,  it  undergoes 
  congestion  and  pigmentation  about  the  central  veins  of  its 
  lobules,  giving  it  an  appearance  resembling  that  of  a 
  nutmeg. 
 
  {Nutmeg  melon}  (Bot.),  a  small  variety  of  muskmelon  of  a  rich 
  flavor. 
 
  {Nutmeg  pigeon}  (Zo["o]l.),  any  one  of  several  species  of 
  pigeons  of  the  genus  {Myristicivora},  native  of  the  East 
  Indies  and  Australia.  The  color  is  usually  white,  or 
  cream-white,  with  black  on  the  wings  and  tail. 
 
  {Nutmeg  wood}  (Bot.),  the  wood  of  the  Palmyra  palm. 
 
  {Peruvian  nutmeg},  the  aromatic  seed  of  a  South  American  tree 
  ({Laurelia  sempervirens}). 
 
  {Plume  nutmeg}  (Bot.),  a  spicy  tree  of  Australia 
  ({Atherosperma  moschata}). 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Jamaica 
  n  1:  a  country  on  the  island  of  Jamaica;  became  independent  of 
  England  in  1962;  much  poverty;  the  major  industry  is 
  tourism  [syn:  {Jamaica}] 
  2:  an  island  in  the  West  Indies  south  of  Cuba  and  west  of  Haiti 
  [syn:  {Jamaica}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Jamaica,  IA  (city,  FIPS  39225) 
  Location:  41.84550  N,  94.30719  W 
  Population  (1990):  232  (104  housing  units) 
  Area:  1.2  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  50128 
  Jamaica,  NY 
  Zip  code(s):  11430,  11432,  11433,  11434,  11435,  11436 
  Jamaica,  VA 
  Zip  code(s):  23079 
  Jamaica,  VT 
  Zip  code(s):  05343 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Jamaica 
 
  Jamaica:Geography 
 
  Location:  Caribbean,  island  in  the  Caribbean  Sea,  south  of  Cuba 
 
  Map  references:  Central  America  and  the  Caribbean 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  10,990  sq  km 
  land  area:  10,830  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Connecticut 
 
  Land  boundaries:  0  km 
 
  Coastline:  1,022  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  exclusive  economic  zone:  200  nm 
  territorial  sea:  12  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  tropical;  hot,  humid;  temperate  interior 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains  with  narrow,  discontinuous  coastal  plain 
 
  Natural  resources:  bauxite,  gypsum,  limestone 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  19% 
  permanent  crops:  6% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  18% 
  forest  and  woodland:  28% 
  other:  29% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  350  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  deforestation;  coastal  waters  polluted  by  industrial 
  waste,  sewage,  and  oil  spills;  damage  to  coral  reefs;  air  pollution  in 
  Kingston  results  from  vehicle  emissions 
  natural  hazards:  hurricanes  (especially  July  to  November) 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Law 
  of  the  Sea,  Marine  Dumping,  Marine  Life  Conservation,  Nuclear  Test 
  Ban,  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  between  Cayman  Trench  and  Jamaica  Channel, 
  the  main  sea  lanes  for  Panama  Canal 
 
  Jamaica:People 
 
  Population:  2,574,291  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  33%  (female  412,565;  male  431,043) 
  15-64  years:  60%  (female  786,700;  male  770,681) 
  65  years  and  over:  7%  (female  96,348;  male  76,954)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.78%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  22.03  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  5.62  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  -8.65  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  16.1  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  74.65  years 
  male:  72.39  years 
  female:  77.01  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  2.42  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Jamaican(s) 
  adjective:  Jamaican 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  African  76.3%,  Afro-European  15.1%,  East  Indian  and 
  Afro-East  Indian  3%,  white  3.2%,  Chinese  and  Afro-Chinese  1.2%,  other 
  1.2% 
 
  Religions:  Protestant  55.9%  (Church  of  God  18.4%,  Baptist  10%, 
  Anglican  7.1%,  Seventh-Day  Adventist  6.9%,  Pentecostal  5.2%,  Methodist 
  3.1%,  United  Church  2.7%,  other  2.5%),  Roman  Catholic  5%,  other 
  including  some  spiritual  cults  39.1%  (1982) 
 
  Languages:  English,  Creole 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  has  ever  attended  school  (1987) 
  total  population:  82% 
  male:  77% 
  female:  86% 
 
  Labor  force:  1,062,100 
  by  occupation:  services  41%,  agriculture  22.5%,  industry  19%, 
  unemployed  17.5%  (1989) 
 
  Jamaica:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  none 
  conventional  short  form:  Jamaica 
 
  Digraph:  JM 
 
  Type:  parliamentary  democracy 
 
  Capital:  Kingston 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  14  parishes;  Clarendon,  Hanover,  Kingston, 
  Manchester,  Portland,  Saint  Andrew,  Saint  Ann,  Saint  Catherine,  Saint 
  Elizabeth,  Saint  James,  Saint  Mary,  Saint  Thomas,  Trelawny 
  Westmoreland 
 
  Independence:  6  August  1962  (from  UK) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  (first  Monday  in  August)  (1962) 
 
  Constitution:  6  August  1962 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  English  common  law;  has  not  accepted  compulsory 
  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  Queen  ELIZABETH  II  (since  6  February  1952), 
  represented  by  Governor  General  Sir  Howard  COOKE  (since  1  August  1991) 
 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  P.  J.  PATTERSON  (since  30  March 
  1992);  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Seymour  MULLINGS  (since  NA  1993) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  governor  general  on  the  advice  of 
  the  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  bicameral  Parliament 
  Senate:  consists  of  a  21-member  body  appointed  by  the  governor  general 
 
  House  of  Representatives:  elections  last  held  30  March  1993  (next  to 
  be  held  by  March  1998);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  - 
  (60  total)  PNP  52,  JLP  8 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  People's  National  Party  (PNP)  P.  J. 
  PATTERSON;  Jamaica  Labor  Party  (JLP),  Edward  SEAGA 
 
  Other  political  or  pressure  groups:  Rastafarians  (black 
  religious/racial  cultists,  pan-Africanists);  New  Beginnings  Movement 
  (NBM) 
 
  Member  of:  ACP,  C,  CARICOM  CCC,  CDB,  ECLAC  FAO,  G-15,  G-19,  G-77, 
  GATT,  IADB,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF, 
  IMO,  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  LAES,  NAM,  OAS,  OPANAL  UN 
  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UNITAR,  UPU,  WCL,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Richard  Leighton  BERNAL 
  chancery:  1520  New  Hampshire  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20036 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  452-0660 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  452-0081 
  consulate(s)  general:  Miami  and  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  J.  Gary  COOPER  (since  October  1994) 
  embassy:  Jamaica  Mutual  Life  Center,  2  Oxford  Road,  3rd  floor, 
  Kingston 
  mailing  address:  use  embassy  street  address 
  telephone:  [1]  (809)  929-4850  through  4859 
  FAX:  [1]  (809)  926-6743 
 
  Flag:  diagonal  yellow  cross  divides  the  flag  into  four  triangles  - 
  green  (top  and  bottom)  and  black  (hoist  side  and  fly  side) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Key  sectors  in  this  island  economy  are  bauxite  (alumina  and 
  bauxite  account  for  more  than  half  of  exports)  and  tourism.  The 
  government's  tight  fiscal  and  monetary  policies,  which  have  been 
  partially  successful  in  curbing  inflation,  have  held  growth  to  1.2%  in 
  1993  and  2.0%  in  1994. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $7.8  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $3,050  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  26.7%  (1994) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  15.7%  (1992) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $600  million 
  expenditures:  $736  million,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA 
  (FY90/91  est.) 
 
  Exports:  $1.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  alumina,  bauxite,  sugar,  bananas,  rum 
  partners:  US  47%,  UK  11%,  Canada  9%,  Norway  7%;  France  4%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $2.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1994  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  transport  equipment,  construction 
  materials,  fuel,  food,  chemicals 
  partners:  US  54%,  Japan  4.0%,  Mexico  6%,  UK  4%,  Venezuela  3%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $3.6  billion  (1994  est.) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  0.4%  (1992);  accounts  for  almost 
  30%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  730,000  kW 
  production:  2.6  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  988  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  bauxite  mining,  tourism,  textiles,  food  processing,  light 
  manufactures 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  7%  of  GDP,  22%  of  work  force,  and  17% 
  of  exports;  commercial  crops  -  sugarcane,  bananas,  coffee,  citrus, 
  potatoes,  vegetables;  livestock  and  livestock  products  include 
  poultry,  goats,  milk;  not  self-sufficient  in  grain,  meat,  and  dairy 
  products 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  transshipment  point  for  cocaine  from  Central  and  South 
  America  to  North  America  and  Europe;  illicit  cultivation  of  cannabis; 
  government  has  an  active  cannabis  eradication  program 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-89),  $1.2  billion; 
  other  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments  (1970-89),  $1.6 
  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  Jamaican  dollar  (J$)  =  100  cents 
 
  Exchange  rates:  Jamaican  dollars  (J$)  per  US$1  -  33.195  (December 
  1994),  33.986  (1994),  24.949  (1993),  22.960  (1992),  12.116  (1991), 
  7.184  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  1  April  -  31  March 
 
  Jamaica:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  370  km 
  standard  gauge:  370  km  1.435-m  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  18,200  km 
  paved:  12,600  km 
  unpaved:  gravel  3,200  km  improved  earth  2,400  km 
 
  Pipelines:  petroleum  products  10  km 
 
  Ports:  Alligator  Pond,  Discovery  Bay,  Kingston,  Montego  Bay,  Ocho 
  Rios,  Port  Antonio,  Longs  Wharf,  Rocky  Point 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  3  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  5,931  GRT/10,545  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  1,  oil  tanker  1,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  1 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  41 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  2 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  1 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  31 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  4 
 
  Jamaica:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  127,000  telephones;  fully  automatic  domestic 
  telephone  network 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  2  INTELSAT  (Atlantic  Ocean)  earth  stations;  3  coaxial 
  submarine  cables 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  10,  FM  17,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  8 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Jamaica:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Jamaica  Defense  Force  (includes  Ground  Forces,  Coast  Guard 
  and  Air  Wing),  Jamaica  Constabulary  Force 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  670,958;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  475,235;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  26,244  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $19.3  million,  1%  of 
  GDP  (FY91/92) 
 
 
 




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