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greece

more about greece

greece


  6  definitions  found 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Gree  \Gree\,  n.;  pl  {Grees}  (gr[=e]z);  obs.  plurals  {Greece} 
  (gr[=e]s)  {Grice}  (gr[imac]s  or  gr[=e]s),  {Grise},  {Grize} 
  (gr[imac]z  or  gr[=e]z),  etc  [OF.  gr['e],  F.  grade.  See 
  {Grade.}] 
  A  step. 
 
  From  Webster's  Revised  Unabridged  Dictionary  (1913)  [web1913]: 
 
  Greece  \Greece\,  n.  pl 
  See  {Gree}  a  step.  [Obs.] 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Greece 
  n  :  a  republic  in  southeastern  Europe  on  the  southern  part  of 
  the  Balkan  peninsula;  known  for  grapes  and  olives  and 
  olive  oil  [syn:  {Greece},  {Ellas}] 
 
  From  U.S.  Gazetteer  (1990)  [gazetteer]: 
 
  Greece,  NY  (CDP,  FIPS  30279) 
  Location:  43.21194  N,  77.70234  W 
  Population  (1990):  15632  (6116  housing  units) 
  Area:  11.3  sq  km  (land),  0.0  sq  km  (water) 
  Zip  code(s):  14616 
 
  From  Easton's  1897  Bible  Dictionary  [easton]: 
 
  Greece 
  orginally  consisted  of  the  four  provinces  of  Macedonia,  Epirus, 
  Achaia,  and  Peleponnesus.  In  Acts  20:2  it  designates  only  the 
  Roman  province  of  Macedonia.  Greece  was  conquered  by  the  Romans 
  B.C.  146.  After  passing  through  various  changes  it  was  erected 
  into  an  independent  monarchy  in  1831. 
 
  Moses  makes  mention  of  Greece  under  the  name  of  Javan  (Gen. 
  10:2-5);  and  this  name  does  not  again  occur  in  the  Old  Testament 
  till  the  time  of  Joel  (3:6).  Then  the  Greeks  and  Hebrews  first 
  came  into  contact  in  the  Tyrian  slave-market.  Prophetic  notice 
  is  taken  of  Greece  in  Dan.  8:21. 
 
  The  cities  of  Greece  were  the  special  scenes  of  the  labours  of 
  the  apostle  Paul. 
 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Greece 
 
  Greece:Geography 
 
  Location:  Southern  Europe,  bordering  the  Aegean  Sea,  Ionian  Sea,  and 
  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  between  Albania  and  Turkey 
 
  Map  references:  Europe 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  131,940  sq  km 
  land  area:  130,800  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  smaller  than  Alabama 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  1,210  km  Albania  282  km  Bulgaria  494  km 
  Turkey  206  km  The  Former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia  228  km 
 
  Coastline:  13,676  km 
 
  Maritime  claims: 
  continental  shelf:  200-m  depth  or  to  the  depth  of  exploitation 
  territorial  sea:  6  nm 
 
  International  disputes:  complex  maritime,  air,  and  territorial 
  disputes  with  Turkey  in  Aegean  Sea;  Cyprus  question;  dispute  with  The 
  Former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia  over  name  symbols,  and  certain 
  constitutional  provisions;  Greece  is  involved  in  a  bilateral  dispute 
  with  Albania  over  border  demarcation,  the  treatment  of  Albania's 
  ethnic  Greek  minority,  and  migrant  Albanian  workers  in  Greece 
 
  Climate:  temperate;  mild,  wet  winters;  hot,  dry  summers 
 
  Terrain:  mostly  mountains  with  ranges  extending  into  sea  as  peninsulas 
  or  chains  of  islands 
 
  Natural  resources:  bauxite,  lignite,  magnesite,  petroleum,  marble 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  23% 
  permanent  crops:  8% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  40% 
  forest  and  woodland:  20% 
  other:  9% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  11,900  sq  km  (1989  est.) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  air  pollution;  water  pollution 
  natural  hazards:  severe  earthquakes 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Air  Pollution,  Antarctic  Treaty, 
  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change,  Endangered  Species,  Environmental 
  Modification,  Hazardous  Wastes,  Marine  Dumping,  Nuclear  Test  Ban, 
  Ozone  Layer  Protection,  Ship  Pollution,  Tropical  Timber  83,  Wetlands; 
  signed,  but  not  ratified  -  Air  Pollution-Nitrogen  Oxides,  Air 
  Pollution-Sulphur  94,  Air  Pollution-Volatile  Organic  Compounds, 
  Antarctic-Environmental  Protocol,  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  strategic  location  dominating  the  Aegean  Sea  and  southern 
  approach  to  Turkish  Straits;  a  peninsular  country,  possessing  an 
  archipelago  of  about  2,000  islands 
 
  Greece:People 
 
  Population:  10,647,511  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  18%  (female  904,374;  male  947,494) 
  15-64  years:  67%  (female  3,601,029;  male  3,565,931) 
  65  years  and  over:  15%  (female  919,044;  male  709,639)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  0.72%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  10.56  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  9.31  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  5.99  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  8.3  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  77.92  years 
  male:  75.39  years 
  female:  80.59  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  1.46  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Greek(s) 
  adjective:  Greek 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Greek  98%,  other  2% 
  note:  the  Greek  Government  states  there  are  no  ethnic  divisions  in 
  Greece 
 
  Religions:  Greek  Orthodox  98%,  Muslim  1.3%,  other  0.7% 
 
  Languages:  Greek  (official),  English,  French 
 
  Literacy:  age  15  and  over  can  read  and  write  (1991) 
  total  population:  95% 
  male:  98% 
  female:  93% 
 
  Labor  force:  4.077  million 
  by  occupation:  services  52%,  agriculture  23%,  industry  25%  (1994) 
 
  Greece:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  Hellenic  Republic 
  conventional  short  form:  Greece 
  local  long  form:  Elliniki  Dhimokratia 
  local  short  form:  Ellas 
  former:  Kingdom  of  Greece 
 
  Digraph:  GR 
 
  Type:  presidential  parliamentary  government;  monarchy  rejected  by 
  referendum  8  December  1974 
 
  Capital:  Athens 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  52  prefectures  (nomoi,  singular  -  nomos); 
  Aitolia  kai  Akarnania  Akhaia,  Argolis,  Arkadhia  Arta,  Attiki 
  Dhodhekanisos,  Dhrama,  Evritania  Evros,  Evvoia  Florina,  Fokis, 
  Fthiotis  Grevena  Ilia,  Imathia  Ioannina  Iraklion  Kardhitsa 
  Kastoria,  Kavala,  Kefallinia  Kerkira  Khalkidhiki  Khania  Khios, 
  Kikladhes,  Kilkis  Korinthia  Kozani  Lakonia,  Larisa  Lasithi 
  Lesvos,  Levkas  Magnisia,  Messinia,  Pella,  Pieria,  Piraievs  Preveza 
  Rethimni  Rodhopi  Samos,  Serrai,  Thesprotia  Thessaloniki,  Trikala 
  Voiotia  Xanthi,  Zakinthos  autonomous  region:  Agion  Oros  (Mt.  Athos) 
 
  Independence:  1829  (from  the  Ottoman  Empire) 
 
  National  holiday:  Independence  Day  25  March  (1821)  (proclamation  of 
  the  war  of  independence) 
 
  Constitution:  11  June  1975 
 
  Legal  system:  based  on  codified  Roman  law;  judiciary  divided  into 
  civil,  criminal,  and  administrative  courts 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal  and  compulsory 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Konstantinos  Kostis  STEPHANOPOULOS  (since 
  10  March  1995)  election  last  held  10  March  1995  (next  to  be  held  by  NA 
  2000);  results  -  Konstantinos  STEPHANOPOULOS  was  elected  by  Parliament 
 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Andreas  PAPANDREOU  (since  10 
  October  1993) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  president  on  recommendation  of  the 
  prime  minister 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  Chamber  of  Deputies  (Vouli  ton  Ellinon):  elections  last  held  10 
  October  1993  (next  to  be  held  by  NA  October  1997);  results  -  PASOK 
  46.88%,  ND  39.30%,  Political  Spring  4.87%,  KKE  4.54%,  and  Progressive 
  Left  (replaced  by  Coalition  of  the  Left  and  Progress)  2.94%;  seats  - 
  (300  total)  PASOK  170,  ND  111,  Political  Spring  10,  KKE  9 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Judicial  Court,  Special  Supreme  Tribunal 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  New  Democracy  (ND;  conservative), 
  Miltiades  EVERT;  Panhellenic  Socialist  Movement  (PASOK),  Andreas 
  PAPANDREOU  Communist  Party  (KKE),  Aleka  PAPARIGA 
  Ecologist-Alternative  List,  leader  rotates;  Political  Spring,  Antonis 
  SAMARAS;  Coalition  of  the  Left  and  Progress  (Synaspismos),  Nikolaos 
  KONSTANTOPOULOS 
 
  Member  of:  Australia  Group  BIS,  BSEC,  CCC,  CE  CERN,  EBRD,  EC  ECE, 
  EIB,  FAO,  G-  6,  GATT,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICC,  ICFTU  ICRM,  IDA,  IEA, 
  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  IMO,  INMARSAT  INTELSAT,  INTERPOL,  IOC, 
  IOM,  ISO,  ITU,  MINURSO  MTCR,  NACC,  NAM  (guest),  NATO,  NEA,  NSG,  OAS 
  (observer),  OECD  OSCE,  PCA,  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNHCR  UNIDO  UNIKOM 
  UPU,  WEU,  WFTU  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO,  ZC 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Loucas  TSILAS 
  chancery:  2221  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW  Washington,  DC  20008 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  939-5800 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  939-5824 
  consulate(s)  general:  Atlanta,  Boston,  Chicago,  Houston,  Los  Angeles, 
  New  York,  and  San  Francisco 
  consulate(s):  New  Orleans 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Thomas  M.T.  NILES 
  embassy:  91  Vasilissis  Sophias  Boulevard,  10160  Athens 
  mailing  address:  PSC  108,  Athens;  APO  AE  09842 
  telephone:  [30]  (1)  721-2951,  8401 
  FAX:  [30]  (1)  645-6282 
  consulate(s)  general:  Thessaloniki 
 
  Flag:  nine  equal  horizontal  stripes  of  blue  alternating  with  white; 
  there  is  a  blue  square  in  the  upper  hoist-side  corner  bearing  a  white 
  cross;  the  cross  symbolizes  Greek  Orthodoxy,  the  established  religion 
  of  the  country 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Greece  has  a  mixed  capitalist  economy  with  the  basic 
  entrepreneurial  system  overlaid  in  1981-89  by  a  socialist  system  that 
  enlarged  the  public  sector  from  55%  of  GDP  in  1981  to  about  70%  in 
  1989.  Since  then,  the  public  sector  has  been  reduced  to  about  60%  of 
  GDP.  Tourism  continues  as  a  major  source  of  foreign  exchange,  and 
  agriculture  is  self-sufficient  except  for  meat,  dairy  products,  and 
  animal  feedstuffs  Over  the  last  decade,  real  GDP  growth  has  averaged 
  1.6%  a  year,  compared  with  the  European  Union  average  of  2.2%. 
  Inflation  continues  to  be  well  above  the  EU  average,  and  the  national 
  debt  has  reached  140%  of  GDP,  the  highest  in  the  EU  Prime  Minister 
  PAPANDREOU  will  probably  make  only  limited  progress  correcting  the 
  economy's  problems  of  high  inflation,  large  budget  deficit,  and 
  decaying  infrastructure.  His  economic  program  suggests  that  although 
  he  will  shun  his  expansionary  policies  of  the  1980s,  he  will  avoid 
  tough  measures  needed  to  slow  inflation  or  reduce  the  state's  role  in 
  the  economy.  He  has  limited  the  previous  government's  privatization 
  plans,  for  example,  and  has  called  for  generous  welfare  spending  and 
  real  wage  increases.  Athens  continues  to  rely  heavily  on  EU  aid,  which 
  recently  has  amounted  to  about  6%  of  GDP.  Greece  almost  certainly  will 
  not  meet  the  EU's  Maastricht  Treaty  convergence  targets  of  public 
  deficit  held  to  3%  of  GDP  and  national  debt  to  60%  of  GDP  by  1999.  Per 
  capita  GDP  has  fallen  below  Portugal's  level,  the  lowest  among  EU 
  members. 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $93.7  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  0.4%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $8,870  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  10.9%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  10.1%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $28.3  billion 
  expenditures:  $37.6  billion,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $5.2 
  billion  (1994) 
 
  Exports:  $9  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  manufactured  goods  53%,  foodstuffs  34%,  fuels  5% 
  partners:  Germany  24%,  Italy  14%,  France  7%,  UK  6%,  US  4%  (1993) 
 
  Imports:  $19.2  billion  (f.o.b.,  1993) 
  commodities:  manufactured  goods  72%,  foodstuffs  15%,  fuels  10% 
  partners:  Germany  16%,  Italy  14%,  France  7%,  Japan  7%,  UK  6%  (1993) 
 
  External  debt:  $26.9  billion  (1993) 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  3.2%  (1993  est.);  accounts  for  18% 
  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  8,970,000  kW 
  production:  35.8  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  3,257  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  tourism,  food  and  tobacco  processing,  textiles,  chemicals, 
  metal  products,  mining,  petroleum 
 
  Agriculture:  including  fishing  and  forestry,  accounts  for  12%  of  GDP; 
  principal  products  -  wheat,  corn,  barley,  sugar  beets,  olives, 
  tomatoes,  wine,  tobacco,  potatoes;  self-sufficient  in  food  except 
  meat,  dairy  products,  and  animal  feedstuffs 
 
  Illicit  drugs:  illicit  producer  of  cannabis  and  limited  opium;  mostly 
  for  domestic  production;  serves  as  a  gateway  to  Europe  for  traffickers 
  smuggling  cannabis  and  heroin  from  the  Middle  East  and  Southwest  Asia 
  to  the  West  and  precursor  chemicals  to  the  East;  transshipment  point 
  for  Southwest  Asian  heroin  transiting  the  Balkan  route 
 
  Economic  aid: 
  recipient:  US  commitments,  including  Ex-Im  (FY70-81),  $525  million; 
  Western  (non-US)  countries,  ODA  and  OOF  bilateral  commitments 
  (1970-89),  $1.39  billion 
 
  Currency:  1  drachma  Dr  =  100  lepta 
 
  Exchange  rates:  drachmae  Dr  per  US$1  -  238.20  (January  1995),  242.60 
  (1994),  229.26  (1993),  190.62  (1992),  182.27  (1991),  158.51  (1990) 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Greece:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  2,503  km 
  standard  gauge:  1,565  km  1.435-m  gauge  (36  km  electrified;  100  km 
  double  track) 
  narrow  gauge:  887  km  1,000-m  gauge;  22  km  0.750-m  gauge;  29  km  0.600-m 
  gauge 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  130,000  km 
  paved:  119,210  km  (116  km  expressways) 
  unpaved:  10,790  km  (1990) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  80  km  system  consists  of  three  coastal  canals; 
  including  the  Corinth  Canal  (6  km)  which  crosses  the  Isthmus  of 
  Corinth  connecting  the  Gulf  of  Corinth  with  the  Saronic  Gulf  and 
  shortens  the  sea  voyage  from  the  Adriatic  to  Piraievs  Piraeus  by  325 
  km  and  three  unconnected  rivers 
 
  Pipelines:  crude  oil  26  km  petroleum  products  547  km 
 
  Ports:  Alexandroupolis  Elevsis  Iraklion  (Crete),  Kavala,  Kerkira 
  Khalkis  Igoumenitsa  Lavrion  Patrai,  Piraievs  (Piraeus), 
  Thessaloniki,  Volos 
 
  Merchant  marine: 
  total:  1,046  ships  (1,000  GRT  or  over)  totaling  29,076,911 
  GRT/53,618,024  DWT 
  ships  by  type:  bulk  469,  cargo  105,  chemical  tanker  22,  combination 
  bulk  21,  combination  ore/oil  31,  container  40,  liquefied  gas  tanker  5, 
  oil  tanker  239,  passenger  14,  passenger-cargo  3,  refrigerated  cargo 
  10,  roll-on/roll-off  cargo  16,  short-sea  passenger  67,  specialized 
  tanker  3,  vehicle  carrier  1 
  note:  ethnic  Greeks  also  own  125  ships  under  Liberian  registry,  323 
  under  Panamanian,  705  under  Cypriot,  351  under  Maltese,  and  100  under 
  Bahamian 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  79 
  with  paved  runways  over  3,047  m:  5 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  15 
  with  paved  runways  1,524  to  2,437  m:  16 
  with  paved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  17 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  22 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
 
  Greece:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  4,080,000  telephones;  adequate,  modern  networks 
  reach  all  areas;  microwave  radio  relay  carries  most  traffic;  extensive 
  open-wire  network;  submarine  cables  to  off-shore  islands 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  microwave  radio  relay  and  open  wire 
  international:  tropospheric  links,  8  submarine  cables;  2  INTELSAT  (1 
  Atlantic  Ocean  and  1  Indian  Ocean)  and  1  EUTELSAT  ground  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  29,  FM  17  (repeaters  20),  shortwave  0 
  radios:  NA 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  361 
  televisions:  NA 
 
  Greece:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Hellenic  Army,  Hellenic  Navy,  Hellenic  Air  Force,  National 
  Guard,  Police 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  2,676,152;  males  fit  for 
  military  service  2,046,996;  males  reach  military  age  (21)  annually 
  75,857  (1995  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $4.1  billion,  5.4%  of 
  GDP  (1994) 
 
 
 




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